Polynucleotides. XLII1. Limited addition of 2'O-onitrobenzyl nucleotides to the 3'-end of ribooligonucleotide with polynucleotide phosphorylase.
2'-O-o-Nitrobenzyluridine, -cytidine and -adenosine were phosphorylated with phosphoryl chloride to the corresponding 5'-phosphates and led to 5'-diphosphates by the method of Moffatt and Khorana. These 2'-O-oNB-nucleoside 5'-diphosphates were incubated with a primer CpApA and polynucleotide phosphorylase in the presence of Mn2+. Tetranucleotides CpApApU, CpApApC and CpApApA were obtained after photosensitive removal of oNB groups in yields of 54-70%. (+info)
Recognition of polynucleotides by antibodies to poly(I), poly(C).
The binding of anti poly(I). poly (C) Fab fragments to double or triple stranded polynucletides has been studied by fluorescence. Association constants were deduced from competition experiments. The comparison of the association constants leads to the conclusion that several atoms of the base residues do not interact with the amino acid residues of the binding site of Fab fragment while the hydroxyl groups of furanose rings interact. These results suggest that the Fab fragments do not bind to the major groove of the double stranded polynucleotides. An interaction between the C(2)O group of pyrimidine residues and Fab fragments cannot be excluded. Circular dichroism of poly(I). poly(C) or poly(I). poly(br5C)-Fab fragments complexes are very different from the circular dichroism of free polynucleotides which suggests a deformation of the polynucleotides bound to the Fab fragments. (+info)
RNAs in the sera of Persian Gulf War veterans have segments homologous to chromosome 22q11.2.
Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) was used for polyribonucleotide assays with sera from deployed Persian Gulf War veterans with the Gulf War Syndrome and a cohort of nonmilitary controls. Sera from veterans contained polyribonucleotides (amplicons) that were obtained by RT-PCR and that ranged in size from 200 to ca. 2,000 bp. Sera from controls did not contain amplicons larger than 450 bp. DNA sequences were derived from two amplicons unique to veterans. These amplicons, which were 414 and 759 nucleotides, were unrelated to each other or to any sequence in gene bank databases. The amplicons contained short segments that were homologous to regions of chromosome 22q11.2, an antigen-responsive hot spot for genetic rearrangements. Many of these short amplicon segments occurred near, between, or in chromosome 22q11.2 Alu sequences. These results suggest that genetic alterations in the 22q11.2 region, possibly induced by exposures to environmental genotoxins during the Persian Gulf War, may have played a role in the pathogenesis of the Gulf War Syndrome. However, the data did not exclude the possibility that other chromosomes also may have been involved. Nonetheless, the detection of polyribonucleotides such as those reported here may have application to the laboratory diagnosis of chronic diseases that have a multifactorial etiology. (+info)
Biosynthesis of osteogenic growth peptide via alternative translational initiation at AUG85 of histone H4 mRNA.
The osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) is an extracellular mitogen identical to the histone H4 (H4) COOH-terminal residues 90-103, which regulates osteogenesis and hematopoiesis. By Northern analysis, OGP mRNA is indistinguishable from H4 mRNA. Indeed, cells transfected with a construct encoding [His102]H4 secreted the corresponding [His13]OGP. These results suggest production of OGP from H4 genes. Cells transfected with H4-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion genes expressed both "long" and "short" CAT proteins. The short CAT was retained following an ATG --> TTG mutation of the H4 ATG initiation codon, but not following mutation of the in-frame internal ATG85 codon, which, unlike ATG1, resides within a perfect context for translational initiation. These results suggest that a PreOGP is translated starting at AUG85. The translational initiation at AUG85 could be inhibited by optimizing the nucleotide sequence surrounding ATG1 to maximally support upstream translational initiation, thus implicating leaky ribosomal scanning in usage of the internal AUG. Conversion of the predicted PreOGP to OGP was shown in a cell lysate system using synthetic [His102]H4-(85-103) as substrate. Together, our results demonstrate that H4 gene expression diverges at the translational level into the simultaneous parallel production of both H4, a nuclear structural protein, and OGP, an extracellular regulatory peptide. (+info)
A more unified picture for the thermodynamics of nucleic acid duplex melting: a characterization by calorimetric and volumetric techniques.
We use a combination of calorimetric and volumetric techniques to detect and to characterize the thermodynamic changes that accompany helix-to-coil transitions for five polymeric nucleic acid duplexes. Our calorimetric measurements reveal that melting of the duplexes is accompanied by positive changes in heat capacity (DeltaCP) of similar magnitude, with an average DeltaCP value of 64.6 +/- 21.4 cal deg-1 mol-1. When this heat capacity value is used to compare significantly different transition enthalpies (DeltaHo) at a common reference temperature, Tref, we find DeltaHTref for duplex melting to be far less dependent on duplex type, base composition, or base sequence than previously believed on the basis of the conventional assumption of a near-zero value for DeltaCP. Similarly, our densimetric and acoustic measurements reveal that, at a given temperature, all the AT- and AU-containing duplexes studied here melt with nearly the same volume and compressibility changes. In the aggregate, our results, in conjunction with literature data, suggest a more unified picture for the thermodynamics of nucleic acid duplex melting. Specifically, when compared at a common temperature, the apparent large differences present in the literature for the transition enthalpies of different duplexes become much more compressed, and the melting of all-AT- and all-AU-containing duplexes exhibits similar volume and compressibility changes despite differences in sequence and conformation. Thus, insofar as thermodynamic properties are concerned, when comparing duplexes, the temperature under consideration is as important as, if not more important than, the duplex type, the base composition, or the base sequence. This general behavior has significant implications for our basic understanding of the forces that stabilize nucleic acid duplexes. This behavior also is of practical significance in connection with the use of thermodynamic databases for designing probes and for assessing the affinity and specificity associated with hybridization-based protocols used in a wide range of sequencing, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. (+info)
A recombinant hepatitis C virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase capable of copying the full-length viral RNA.
All of the previously reported recombinant RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRp), the NS5B enzymes, of hepatitis C virus (HCV) could function only in a primer-dependent and template-nonspecific manner, which is different from the expected properties of the functional viral enzymes in the cells. We have now expressed a recombinant NS5B that is able to synthesize a full-length HCV genome in a template-dependent and primer-independent manner. The kinetics of RNA synthesis showed that this RdRp can initiate RNA synthesis de novo and yield a full-length RNA product of genomic size (9.5 kb), indicating that it did not use the copy-back RNA as a primer. This RdRp was also able to accept heterologous viral RNA templates, including poly(A)- and non-poly(A)-tailed RNA, in a primer-independent manner, but the products in these cases were heterogeneous. The RdRp used some homopolymeric RNA templates only in the presence of a primer. By using the 3'-end 98 nucleotides (nt) of HCV RNA, which is conserved in all genotypes of HCV, as a template, a distinct RNA product was generated. Truncation of 21 nt from the 5' end or 45 nt from the 3' end of the 98-nt RNA abolished almost completely its ability to serve as a template. Inclusion of the 3'-end variable sequence region and the U-rich tract upstream of the X region in the template significantly enhanced RNA synthesis. The 3' end of minus-strand RNA of HCV genome also served as a template, and it required a minimum of 239 nt from the 3' end. These data defined the cis-acting sequences for HCV RNA synthesis at the 3' end of HCV RNA in both the plus and minus senses. This is the first recombinant HCV RdRp capable of copying the full-length HCV RNA in the primer-independent manner expected of the functional HCV RNA polymerase. (+info)
Human hepatic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase binds to the poly(U) tract of the 3' non-coding region of hepatitis C virus genomic RNA.
The unique poly(U/UC) tract, the middle part of the tripartite 3' non-coding region (3'NCR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic RNA, may represent a recognition signal for the HCV replicase complex. In this study, several proteins binding specifically to immobilized ribooligonucleotide r(U)(25) mimicking this structure were identified using cytosolic extracts from HCV-negative or -positive liver explants, and a prominent 36 kDa protein was studied further. Competition experiments including homoribopolymers revealed binding affinities in the order: oligo/poly(U)>(A)>(C)>(G). The protein was identified as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a multifunctional protein known to bind RNA. GAPDH bound efficiently to the full-length HCV RNA and binding to various 3'NCR constructs revealed critical dependence upon the presence of the middle part of the 3'NCR. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein, described previously to bind the 3'NCR, did not bind efficiently to the middle part of 3'NCR and was captured from liver extracts in considerably smaller quantities. (+info)
Elucidation of hydrocarbon structure in an enzyme-catalyzed benzo[a]pyrene-poly (G) covalent complex.
The carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene, was covalently attached to poly (G) by liver microsomes from rats pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene. The complex was hydrolyzed with enzymes or base and products were isolated by Sephadex chromatography. Absorbance and fluorescence spectra of the products fit that of red-shifted pyrene aromatic system and suggest that metabolism has occurred at the 7-, 8-, 9-, and 10-positions of the hydrocarbon. Benzanthracene or chrysene fluorescence were not observed in these preparations. Benzo[a]pyrene derivatives were synthesized and purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Dehydration of 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene resulted in the formation of small amounts of 7-oxo-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzoa[a]pyrene. A 7-keto species was also observed after similar treatment of the hydrocarbon-poly(G) hydrolysis products. Evidence of dehydration at the 9,10-positions was not observed. The hydrocarbon covalently bound to poly(G) is, therefore, a derivative of 7,8-dihydroxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzol[a]pyrene with nucleic acid substitution at C-10 or 9. (+info)