Veratryl alcohol-mediated oxidation of isoeugenyl acetate by lignin peroxidase.
The mechanism of the veratryl alcohol (VA)-mediated oxidation of isoeugenyl acetate (IEA) by lignin peroxidase, and the subsequent spontaneous Calpha-Cbeta cleavage of IEA to vanillyl acetate were studied. IEA oxidation only occurred in the presence of VA. It probably did not bind to lignin peroxidase as evidenced by an unaffected Km for VA in the presence of IEA, and by the fact that a 10-fold molar excess of the unreactive IEA counterpart, eugenyl acetate, did not affect the IEA oxidation rate. IEA was very efficient in recycling VA. Up to 34 mol of IEA were oxidized per mol VA. Formation of the predominant VA oxidation product, veratraldehyde, was postponed until IEA was almost completely oxidized. Together these findings suggest that IEA was oxidized by VA.+ rather than directly by lignin peroxidase. Thus, VA functioned as a redox mediator during IEA oxidation which is remarkable considering the high calculated ionization potential of 8.81 eV. Regardless of the presence of O2, approximately 2 mol of IEA were consumed per mol H2O2, which indicated that IEA was enzymatically oxidized by one electron to the putative radical cation (IEA.+). After formation of IEA.+, a series of O2-dependent chemical reactions were responsible for Calpha-Cbeta cleavage to the major oxidation product vanillyl acetate, as evidenced by the observation that an N2 atmosphere did not inhibit IEA oxidation, but almost completely inhibited vanillyl acetate formation. GC-MS analyses revealed that under an air atmosphere 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-propanone, 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-1-hydroxy-2-propanone, and 1-(4'-acetoxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-hydroxy-1-propanone were also formed. Formation of the latter two was diminished under an N2 atmosphere. (+info)
Natural mediators in the oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by laccase mediator systems.
The oxidation of polycyclic aromatic compounds was studied in systems consisting of laccase from Trametes versicolor and so-called mediator compounds. The enzymatic oxidation of acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, anthracene, and fluorene was mediated by various laccase substrates (phenols and aromatic amines) or compounds produced and secreted by white rot fungi. The best natural mediators, such as phenol, aniline, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol were as efficient as the previously described synthetic compounds ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. The oxidation efficiency increased proportionally with the redox potentials of the phenolic mediators up to a maximum value of 0.9 V and decreased thereafter with redox potentials exceeding this value. Natural compounds such as methionine, cysteine, and reduced glutathione, containing sulfhydryl groups, were also active as mediator compounds. (+info)
Decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes with a laccase from Trametes hirsuta.
Trametes hirsuta and a purified laccase from this organism were able to degrade triarylmethane, indigoid, azo, and anthraquinonic dyes. Initial decolorization velocities depended on the substituents on the phenolic rings of the dyes. Immobilization of the T. hirsuta laccase on alumina enhanced the thermal stabilities of the enzyme and its tolerance against some enzyme inhibitors, such as halides, copper chelators, and dyeing additives. The laccase lost 50% of its activity at 50 mM NaCl while the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the immobilized enzyme was 85 mM. Treatment of dyes with the immobilized laccase reduced their toxicities (based on the oxygen consumption rate of Pseudomonas putida) by up to 80% (anthraquinonic dyes). Textile effluents decolorized with T. hirsuta or the laccase were used for dyeing. Metabolites and/or enzyme protein strongly interacted with the dyeing process indicated by lower staining levels (K/S) values than obtained with a blank using water. However, when the effluents were decolorized with immobilized laccase, they could be used for dyeing and acceptable color differences (DeltaE*) below 1.1 were measured for most dyes. (+info)
Production and chemiluminescent free radical reactions of glyoxal in lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid by the ligninolytic enzyme, manganese peroxidase.
Glyoxal is a key compound involved in glyoxal oxidase (GLOX)-dependent production of glyoxylate, oxalate and H2O2 by lignin-degrading basidiomycetes. In this paper, we report that glyoxal was produced from a metabolite of ligninolytic fungi, linoleic acid, by manganese peroxidase (MnP)-dependent lipid peroxidation. In the absence of the parent substrate of linoleic acid, the dialdehyde was oxidized by MnP and Mn(III) chelate to start free radical reactions with emission of chemiluminescence at 700-710 nm. The spectroscopic profile of the light emission is distinguishable from (a) singlet oxygen, (b) triplet carbonyls from dioxetane and alpha-hydroxyperoxyl radicals, and (c) biacyl triplet formed by the coupling of two acyl radicals. The photon emission of glyoxal by MnP was activated by co-oxidation of tartrate. The MnP-dependent oxidation of glyoxal in tartrate buffers continued for 10 days without addition of exogenous H2O2. The importance of these results is discussed in relation to the free radical chemistry of lignin biodegradation by wood rot fungi. (+info)
The isolation, identification and determination of dehydrotumulosic acid in Poria cocos.
Poria cocos (Fuling), a popular Chinese medicinal (CM) herb of fungal origin, has been included in many combinations with other CM herbs for its traditionally claimed activities of inducing diuresis, excreting dampness, invigorating the spleen and tranquilizing the mind and its modern pharmacological use of modulating the immune system of the body. Dehydrotumulosic acid, one of the effective constituents of Fuling, was isolated from the chloroform-soluble material of ethanol extract of the fungus. After further purification by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method on a C18 column, the purified constituent was identified using modern analytical techniques, such as UV, 13C-NMR and EI-MS. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of dehydrotumulosic acid in Poria cocos. The determination can be accomplished in less than 50 min using methanol-acetonitrile-2% glacial acetic acid as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, with a UV detector setting at 242 nm and testosterone propionate used as an internal standard. This assay for dehydrotumulosic acid is simple, rapid and with good reproducibility. (+info)
Effects of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide B on monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 gene expression in rat.
AIM: To investigate the effect of Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide B (CVPS-B), a new water-soluble component of polysaccharides from the fungus Coriolus versicolor (Fr) L on monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) gene expression in rat splenocytes. METHODS: Expression of MCP-1 mRNA in rat splenocytes was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with beta- actin as an internal standard. Sequencing of RT-PCR products was performed to confirm their specificity in MCP-1 gene composition. RESULTS: (1) Without pre-treatment of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the relative MCP-1 mRNA expression ratios (MCP-1/beta-actin) for the saline control group and for CVPS-B groups in 3 different doses (10, 20, and 30 mg . kg-1 . d-1, ip, for 4 d) were 1.4 +/- 0.3, 1.6 +/- 0.4, 1.7 +/- 0.5, and 1.5 +/- 0.4, respectively (P > 0.05); (2) LPS (10 microg . kg-1, ip) enhanced the expression of MPC-1 mRNA by the ratio of 114 %; (3) pre-treatment with CVPS-B of 4 different doses (5, 10, 30, and 50 mg . kg-1 . d-1, ip, for 4 d) decreased the LPS induced expression of MPC-1 mRNA by the ratios of 51 %, 70 %, 84 %, and 99 %, respectively (n = 6). CONCLUSION: In a dose-related fashion, CVPS-B inhibited the expression of MCP-1 mRNA induced by LPS in the rat splenocytes, but did not significantly affect the expression of MPC-1 mRNA in the normal rat. (+info)
Effect of SCG, 1,3-beta-D-glucan from Sparassis crispa on the hematopoietic response in cyclophosphamide induced leukopenic mice.
Sparassis crispa Fr. is an edible mushroom recently cultivable in Japan. It contains a remarkably high content of 6-branched 1,3-beta-D-glucan showing antitumor activity. Using ion-exchange chromatography, a purified beta-glucan preparation, SCG, was prepared. In this study, we examined the hematopoietic response by SCG in cyclophosphamide (CY)-induced leukopenic mice. SCG enhanced the hematopoietic response in CY induced leukopenic mice by intraperitoneal routes over a wide range of concentrations. SCG enhanced the hematopoietic response in CY-treated mice by prior or post administration. Analyzing the leukocyte population by flow cytometry, monocytes and granulocytes in the peritoneal cavity, liver, spleen and bone marrow (BM) recovered faster than in the control group. The ratio of natural killer cells and gammadelta T cells in the liver, spleen and peritoneal cavity was also increased. In contrast, CD4+ CD8+ cells in the thymus were temporarily significantly decreased by the administration of SCG. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) production of CY+SCG-treated peritoneal exdated cells (PECs), spleen cells and bone marrow cells (BMCs) were higher than that of the CY-treated group. By in vitro culture of CY-treated PEC and spleen cells, IL-6 production was enhanced by the addition of SCG. These facts suggested the possibility that IL-6 might be a key cytokine for the enhanced hematopoietic response by SCG. (+info)
Influence of tropolone on Poria placenta wood degradation.
Fenton reactions are believed to play important roles in wood degradation by brown rot fungi. In this context, the effect of tropolone (2-hydroxycyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone), a metal chelator, on wood degradation by Poria placenta was investigated. Tropolone (50 micro M) strongly inhibits fungal growth on malt agar, but this inhibition could be relieved by adding iron salts. With an experimental system containing two separate parts, one supplemented with tropolone (100 micro M) and the other not, it was shown that the fungus is able to reallocate essential minerals from the area where they are available and also to grow in these conditions on malt-agar in the presence of tropolone. Nevertheless, even in the presence of an external source of metals, P. placenta is not able to attack pine blocks impregnated with tropolone (5 mM). This wood degradation inhibition is related to the presence of the tropolone hydroxyl group, as shown by the use of analogs (cyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone and 2-methoxycyclohepta-2,4,6-trienone). Furthermore, tropolone possesses both weak antioxidative and weak radical-scavenging properties and a strong affinity for ferric ion and is able to inhibit ferric iron reduction by catecholates, lowering the redox potential of the iron couple. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that tropolone inhibits wood degradation by P. placenta by chelating iron present in wood, thus avoiding initiation of the Fenton reaction. This study demonstrates that iron chelators such as tropolone could be also involved in novel and more environmentally benign preservative systems. (+info)