Involvement of interleukin-2 in analgesia produced by Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide peptides.
AIM: To study the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) in analgesia produced by Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide peptide (PSP). METHODS: The IL-2 antiserum was injected i.c.v. or i.p. and the MBH was destroyed electrolytically. RESULTS: PSP i.g. 1 g.kg-1.d-1 for 6 d increased the pain threshold in tail stimulation-vocalization test in rats. This PSP-produced analgesia was blocked by i.c.v., but not i.p., IL-2 antiserum and disappeared after electrolytic lesion of MBH. CONCLUSION: The analgesia produced by PSP is mediated by IL-2 which is activated by PSP and interacts with IL-2 receptors in the MBH. (+info)
Electrochemical studies of a truncated laccase produced in Pichia pastoris.
The cDNA that encodes an isoform of laccase from Trametes versicolor (LCCI), as well as a truncated version (LCCIa), was subcloned and expressed by using the yeast Pichia pastoris as the heterologous host. The amino acid sequence of LCCIa is identical to that of LCCI except that the final 11 amino acids at the C terminus of LCCI are replaced with a single cysteine residue. This modification was introduced for the purpose of improving the kinetics of electron transfer between an electrode and the copper-containing active site of laccase. The two laccases (LCCI and LCCIa) are compared in terms of their relative activity with two substrates that have different redox potentials. Results from electrochemical studies on solutions containing LCCI and LCCIa indicate that the redox potential of the active site of LCCIa is shifted to more negative values (411 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode voltage) than that found in other fungal laccases. In addition, replacing the 11 codons at the C terminus of the laccase gene with a single cysteine codon (i.e., LCCI-->LCCIa) influences the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer between an electrode and the copper-containing active site (k(het) for LCCIa = 1.3 x 10(-4) cm s(-1)). These results demonstrate for the first time that the rate of electron transfer between an oxidoreductase and an electrode can be enhanced by changes to the primary structure of a protein via site-directed mutagenesis. (+info)
Preparation and microbial decomposition of synthetic [14C]ligins.
A definitive assay for microbiological and biochemical research on the biodegradation of lignin was developed using radioactive synthetic lignins specifically labeled in the side chains, aromatic rings or in the methoxyl groups. The [14C]lignins were prepared by oxidative polymerization with peroxidase and H2O2 Of specifically labeled coniferyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methyoxycinnamyl alcohol). The synthetic polymers were shown by spectroscopic and chemical methods to contain the same intermonomer linkages found in natural lignins. Incubation of the [14C]lignins with known lignin-degrading fungi and with a forest soil resulted in 14CO2 evolution. (+info)
Molecular cloning of the cDNA encoding laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus I-937 and expression in Pichia pastoris.
Laccases are multicopper-containing enzymes which catalyse the oxidation of phenolic and nonphenolic compounds with the concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen. In this study, a full-length cDNA coding for laccase (lac1) from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus I-937 was isolated and characterized. The corresponding open reading frame is 1557 nucleotides long and encodes a protein of 518 amino acids. The cDNA encodes a precursor protein containing a 21 amino-acid signal sequence corresponding to a putative signal peptide. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the encoded protein was similar to that of other laccase proteins, with the residues involved in copper coordination sharing the greatest extent of similarity. The cDNA encoding for laccase was placed under the control of the alcohol oxidase (Aox 1) promoter and expressed in the methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris. The laccase leader peptide, as well as the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor signal peptide, efficiently directed the secretion into the culture medium of laccase in an active form. Moreover, the laccase activity was directly detected in plates. The identity of the recombinant product was further confirmed by protein immunoblotting. The expected molecular mass of the mature protein is 81 kDa. However, the apparent molecular mass of the recombinant protein is 110 k Da, thus suggesting that the protein expressed in P. pastoris may be hyperglycosylated. (+info)
Radical mediated indirect oxidation of a PEG-coupled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) model compound by fungal laccase.
A high molecular model compound of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon was synthesised by coupling pyrene to PEG(5000). The pyrene-PEG was used for the study of a laccase-mediator-system. To prevent direct contact between the substrate and the enzyme the two were kept in their own compartments separated by a membrane. The low molecular mediators, 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and 2, 2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), which were oxidised by laccase to the corresponding radicals or cations permeated the membrane and reacted with the pyrene-PEG model compound. Oxidation of the model compound resulted in an alpha-oxidation of the alkyl-chain leading to two main oxidation products. The same oxidation products were obtained in the reaction system without a membrane. (+info)
Formation of acyl radical in lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid by manganese-dependent peroxidase from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Bjerkandera adusta.
Lipid peroxidation by managanese peroxidase (MnP) is reported to decompose recalcitrant polycyclic aromatic hydrocabon (PAH) and nonphenolic lignin models. To elucidate the oxidative process, linoleic acid and 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid [13(S)-HPODE] were reacted with MnPs from Ceriporiopsis subvermispora and Bjerkandera adusta and the free radicals produced were analyzed by ESR. When the MnPs were reacted with 13(S)-HPODE in the presence of Mn(II), H2O2 and tert-nitrosobutane (t-NB), the ESR spectrum contained a sharp triplet of acyl radical (aN = 0.81 mT). Formation of acyl radical was also observed in the reactions of Mn(III)-tartrate with 13(S)-HPODE and with linoleic acid, but the latter reaction occurred explosively after an induction period of around 30 min. Reactions of MnP with linoleic acid in the presence of Mn(II), H2O2 and t-NB gave no spin adducts while addition of t-NB after preincubation of linoleic acid with MnP/Mn(II)/H2O2 for 2 h gave spin adducts of carbon-centered (aN = 1.53 mT, aH = 0.21 mT) and acyl (aN = 0.81 mT) radicals. In contrast to linoleic acid, methyl linoleate and oleic acid were not peroxidized by MnP and chelated Mn(III) within a few hours, indicating that structures containing both the 1,4-pentadienyl moiety and a free carboxyl group are necessary for inducing the peroxidation in a short reaction time. These results indicate that MnP-dependent lipid peroxidation is not initiated by direct abstraction of hydrogen from the bis-allylic position during turnover but proceeds by a Mn(III)-dependent hydrogen abstraction from enols and subsequent propagation reactions involving the formation of acyl radical from lipid hydroperoxide. This finding expands the role of chelated Mn(III) from a phenol oxidant to a strong generator of free radicals from lipids and lipid hydroperoxides in lignin biodegradation. (+info)
Hot spots, indicator taxa, complementarity and optimal networks of taiga.
If hot spots for different taxa coincide, priority-setting surveys in a region could be carried out more cheaply by focusing on indicator taxa. Several previous studies show that hot spots of different taxa rarely coincide. However, in tropical areas indicator taxa may be used in selecting complementary networks to represent biodiversity as a whole. We studied beetles (Coleoptera), Heteroptera, polypores or bracket fungi (Polyporaceae) and vascular plants of old growth boreal taiga forests. Optimal networks for Heteroptera maximized the high overall species richness of beetles and vascular plants, but these networks were least favourable options for polypores. Polypores are an important group indicating the conservation value of old growth taiga forests. Random selection provided a better option. Thus, certain groups may function as good indicators for maximizing the overall species richness of some taxonomic groups, but all taxa should be examined separately. (+info)
The effect of cytochalasin B on hyphal morphogenesis in Polyporus biennis.
Cytochalasin B inhibited the radial growth rate of Polyporus biennis, and caused an increase in hyphal density through a reduction in the distance between successive branches. Cytochalasin B also produced irregular hyphal profiles and, in a small percentage of hyphae, forked apices. The position of clamp connexions was little affected by cytochalasin B, but the developmental process was specifically inhibited during initiation and during the last two stages, when contact and dissolution of the clamp were occurring. There were no major disruptions of the ultrastructure of the dolipore/parenthesome septum caused by cytochalasin B treatment. (+info)