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(1/581) Viral variant nucleotide sequences help expose leukocytic positioning in the JC virus pathway to the CNS.

The human polyomavirus JCV lytically infects oligodendrocytes of immunosuppressed individuals leading to the fatal demyelinating disease termed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Dementia, hemiparesis, and hemianopsia are the predominant presenting signs of PML. Asymptomatic JCV infection is common worldwide with approximately 80% of adults testing positive for JCV antibodies. In addition to the brain, JCV has been shown to infect tonsil, lymphoid, bone marrow, and kidney tissues. Viral variants, classified according to the nucleotide sequences of their regulatory regions, are being mapped in human tissues and cell types to help trace the pathway of JCV from a site of initial infection to target oligodendrocytes. In most literature, a dichotomy of the JCV regulatory region structure exists by tissue. B lymphocytes, however, have demonstrated the capacity to harbor JCV of diverse regulatory regions, which helps position their interaction with virus amid every stage of infection and implicates a lymphocytic role in latency.  (+info)

(2/581) Polyomavirus infection of renal allograft recipients: from latent infection to manifest disease.

Polyomavirus (PV) exceptionally causes a morphologically manifest renal allograft infection. Five such cases were encountered in this study, and were followed between 40 and 330 d during persistent PV renal allograft infection. Transplant (Tx) control groups without PV graft infection were analyzed for comparison. Tissue and urine samples were evaluated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and PCR. The initial diagnosis of PV infection with the BK strain was made in biopsies 9+/-2 mo (mean +/- SD) post-Tx after prior rejection episodes and rescue therapy with tacrolimus. All subsequent biopsies showed persistent PV infection. Intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in epithelial cells along the entire nephron and the transitional cell layer were histologic hallmarks of infection. Affected tubular cells were enlarged and often necrotic. In two patients, small glomerular crescents were found. In 54% of biopsies, infection was associated with pronounced inflammation, which had features of cellular rejection. All patients were excreting PV-infected cells in the urine. PV infection was associated with 40% graft loss (2 of 5) and a serum creatinine of 484+/-326 micromol/L (mean +/- SD; 11 mo post-Tx). Tx control groups showed PV-infected cells in the urine in 5%. Control subjects had fewer rejection episodes (P<0.05) and stable graft function (P = 0.01). It is concluded that a manifest renal allograft infection with PV (BK strain) can persist in heavily immunosuppressed patients with recurrent rejection episodes. PV mainly affects tubular cells and causes necrosis, a major reason for functional deterioration. A biopsy is required for diagnosis. Urine cytology can serve as an adjunct diagnostic tool.  (+info)

(3/581) A novel animal model for hemangiomas: inhibition of hemangioma development by the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470.

Hemangiomas represent the most frequent tumors of infancy. However, the pathogenesis of these tumors is still largely unknown, and current treatment of juvenile hemangiomas remains unsatisfactory. Here we present a novel animal model to study proliferating hemangiomas and to evaluate the effect of angiostatic compounds on their growth. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection of 4-day-old rats with murine polyomavirus resulted in the development of multiple cutaneous, intramuscular (i.m.), and cerebral hemangiomas with 100% frequency. Histological examination of the brain revealed the formation of immature lesions as soon as 4 days postinfection (p.i.). The subsequent exponential growth of the hemangiomas, both in number and size, was associated with severe hemorrhage and anemia. The cerebral, cutaneous, and i.m. lesions consisted of blood-filled cysts, histologically similar to human cavernous hemangiomas and stained positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Mature cerebral hemangiomas also expressed von Willebrand factor. Cerebral lesions caused death of the untreated animals within 19.2 +/- 1.1 days p.i. Remarkably fewer and smaller hemangiomas developed in animals that had been treated s.c. with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Accordingly, TNP-470 (50 mg/kg), administered twice a week from 3 days p.i., significantly delayed tumor-associated mortality [mean day of death, 28.2 +/- 3.3 (P < 0.001)]. Even if therapy was initiated when cerebral hemangiomas were already macroscopically visible (i.e., 9 days p.i.), a significant delay in hemangioma-associated mortality was observed. Also, the IFN-inducer polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid caused a delay of 9 days (P < 0.005) in tumor-associated mortality when administered i.p. at 5 mg/kg, twice a week, starting at day 3 p.i. The model described here may be useful for investigating (a) the angiogenic mechanism(s) underlying hemangioma progression; and (b) the effect of anti-angiogenic compounds on vascular tumor growth.  (+info)

(4/581) Discrimination between sialic acid-containing receptors and pseudoreceptors regulates polyomavirus spread in the mouse.

Variations in the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 underlie important biological differences between highly pathogenic large-plaque and relatively nonpathogenic small-plaque strains. These polymorphisms constitute major determinants of virus spread in mice and also dictate previously recognized strain differences in sialyloligosaccharide binding. X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that these determinants affect binding to the sialic acids. Here we report results of further experiments designed to test the importance of specific contacts between VP1 and the carbohydrate moieties of the receptor. With minor exceptions, substitutions at positions predicted from crystallography to be important in binding the terminal alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid or the penultimate sugar (galactose) destroyed the ability of the virus to replicate in cell culture. Substitutions that prevented binding to a branched disialyloligosaccharide were found to result in viruses that were both viable in culture and tumorigenic in the mouse. Conversely, substitutions that allowed recognition and binding of the branched carbohydrate chain inhibited spread in the mouse, though the viruses remained viable in culture. Mice of five different inbred strains, all highly susceptible to large-plaque virus, showed resistance to the spread of polyomavirus strains bearing the VP1 type which binds the branched-chain receptor. We suggest that glycoproteins bearing the appropriate O-linked branched sialyloligosaccharide chains are effective pseudoreceptors in the host and that they block the spread of potentially tumorigenic or virulent virus strains.  (+info)

(5/581) Mechanisms of cell transformation induced by polyomavirus.

Polyomavirus is a DNA tumor virus that induces a variety of tumors in mice. Its genome encodes three proteins, namely large T (LT), middle T (MT), and small T (ST) antigens, that have been implicated in cell transformation and tumorigenesis. LT is associated with cell immortalization, whereas MT plays an essential role in cell transformation by binding to and activating several cytoplasmic proteins that participate in growth factor-induced mitogenic signal transduction to the nucleus. The use of different MT mutants has led to the identification of MT-binding proteins as well as analysis of their importance during cell transformation. Studying the molecular mechanisms of cell transformation by MT has contributed to a better understanding of cell cycle regulation and growth control.  (+info)

(6/581) Wild-derived inbred mice have a novel basis of susceptibility to polyomavirus-induced tumors.

Polyomavirus induces a broad array of tumors when introduced into newborn mice of certain standard inbred strains, notably those bearing the H-2(k) haplotype. Susceptibility in these mice is conferred by an endogenous mouse mammary tumor virus superantigen (Mtv-7 sag) that acts to delete T cells required for polyomavirus-induced tumor immunosurveillance. In the present study we show that mice of two wild-derived inbred strains, PERA/Ei (PE) and CZECH II/Ei (CZ), are highly susceptible to polyomavirus but carry no detectable Mtv sag-related sequences and show no evidence of Vbeta deletion. C57BR/cdJ (BR) mice, which are H-2(k) but lack the endogenous Mtv-7, are highly resistant based on an effective anti-polyomavirus tumor immune response. When crossed with BR, both PE and CZ mice transmit their susceptibility in a dominant fashion, indicating a mechanism(s) that overrides the immune response of BR. Susceptibility in PE and CZ mice is not based on interference with antigen processing or presentation since cytotoxic T cells from BR can efficiently kill F(1)-derived tumor cells in vitro. The expected precursors of polyomavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells are present in both the wild inbred animals and their F(1) progeny. These findings indicate a novel basis of susceptibility that operates independently of endogenous superantigen and prevents the development of tumor immunity.  (+info)

(7/581) The distribution and kinetics of polyomavirus in lungs of intranasally infected newborn mice.

The primary cell types that sustain polyomavirus (Py) replication following intranasal infection as well as the nature of the host cellular response to Py were unknown. As this is an essential and specific site for virus entry, it seems likely that viral gene function must be adapted to these mucosal tissues. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we determined the cell types in the lung that support Py gene expression and replication following intranasal inoculation of newborn mice within 24 h of birth. Lungs were collected daily from days 1 to 10 postinfection for Py DNA and early T antigen analysis and for histological examination by H&E staining, using methods that preserve the delicate newborn lung architecture. Viral DNA was present in increasing quantities from 2 to 6 dpi in a subset of the Clara cells lining the inner lumen of the bronchi and bronchioles, while T antigen expression was present in a majority of the cells in the bronchi and bronchiole lumen. A distinct and transient pattern of hyperplasia was observed among the cells expressing T antigen and was present from 3 through 6 dpi. Py DNA-containing cells exfoliated into the bronchiole lumen and alveolar ducts, but Py T antigen was not detected in these cells. Py DNA was first detected at 2 dpi, increased through 6 dpi, and abruptly declined through 9 dpi at which time there was no sign of viral DNA in the lungs by in situ hybridization. An unusual infiltration of neutrophils began before the presence of exfoliated cells or Py replication and continued for 2-3 days and was followed by a lymphocytic infiltration at 8-10 dpi lasting 2-3 days. Neither the hyperplasia nor the neutrophil infiltration occurred following infection with the MOP1033 MT-Ag or RB1 LT-Ag mutants of Py. In addition, both the neutrophil infiltration and the transient hyperplasia are in stark contrast to the heavy macrophage infiltration that follows infection of lungs with mouse adenovirus. Thus it appears that Py elicits a distinct host response pattern not seen with other DNA viral infections.  (+info)

(8/581) Polyomaviruria in renal transplant patients is not correlated to the cold ischemia period or to rejection episodes.

Polyomaviruria was observed in one-third of all renal transplant patients, irrespective of whether their renal grafts came from a living or cadaver donor, and was not correlated to graft rejection episodes. This suggests that the renal graft ischemia period is not the major cause of polyomavirus reactivation and that reactivation of polyomavirus is not a dominant cause of graft rejection.  (+info)