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(1/1521) The retinoblastoma protein alters the phosphorylation state of polyomavirus large T antigen in murine cell extracts and inhibits polyomavirus origin DNA replication.

The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRb) can associate with the transforming proteins of several DNA tumor viruses, including the large T antigen encoded by polyomavirus (Py T Ag). Although pRb function is critical for regulating progression from G1 to S phase, a role for pRb in S phase has not been demonstrated or excluded. To identify a potential effect of pRb on DNA replication, pRb protein was added to reaction mixtures containing Py T Ag, Py origin-containing DNA (Py ori-DNA), and murine FM3A cell extracts. We found that pRb strongly represses Py ori-DNA replication in vitro. Unexpectedly, however, this inhibition only partially depends on the interaction of pRb with Py T Ag, since a mutant Py T Ag (dl141) lacking the pRb interaction region was also significantly inhibited by pRb. This result suggests that pRb interferes with or alters one or more components of the murine cell replication extract. Furthermore, the ability of Py T Ag to be phosphorylated in such extracts is markedly reduced in the presence of pRb. Since cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) phosphorylation of Py T Ag is required for its replication function, we hypothesize that pRb interferes with this phosphorylation event. Indeed, the S-phase CDK complex (cyclin A-CDK2), which phosphorylates both pRb and Py T Ag, alleviates inhibition caused by pRb. Moreover, hyperphosphorylated pRb is incapable of inhibiting replication of Py ori-DNA in vitro. We propose a new requirement for maintaining pRb phosphorylation in S phase, namely, to prevent deleterious effects on the cellular replication machinery.  (+info)

(2/1521) Cross-recognition of two middle T protein epitopes by immunodominant polyoma virus-specific CTL.

We recently identified the immunodominant epitope for polyoma virus-specific CTL as the Dk-associated peptide MT389-397 derived from the middle T (MT) viral oncoprotein. Another Dk-restricted peptide corresponding to residues 236-244 of MT was recognized by nearly all MT389-397-reactive CTL clones, but required concentrations at least 2 logs higher to sensitize syngeneic target cells for lysis. Except for identity at the three putative Dk-peptide anchor residues, MT236-244 shares no homology with MT389-397. Using a novel europium-based class I MHC-peptide binding immunoassay, we determined that MT236-244 bound Dk 2-3 logs less well than MT389-397. Infection with a mutant polyoma virus whose MT is truncated just before the MT389-397 epitope or immunization with MT389-397 or MT236-244 peptides elicited CTL that recognized both MT389-397 and MT236-244. Importantly, infection with a polyoma virus lacking MT389-397 and mutated in an MT236-244 Dk anchor position induced polyoma virus-specific CTL recognizing neither MT389-397 nor MT236-244 epitopes. Despite predominant usage of the Vbeta6 gene segment, MT389-397/MT236-244 cross-reactive CTL clones possess diverse complementarity-determining region 3beta domains; this is functionally reflected in their heterogeneous recognition patterns of alanine-monosubstituted MT389-397 peptides. Using Dk/MT389-397 tetramers, we directly visualized MT236-244 peptide-induced TCR down-modulation of virtually all MT389-397-specific CD8+ T cells freshly explanted from polyoma-infected mice, suggesting that a single TCR recognizes both Dk-restricted epitopes. The availability of immunodominant epitope-specific CTL capable of recognizing a second epitope in MT, a viral protein essential for tumorigenesis, may serve to amplify the CTL response to the immunodominant epitope and prevent the emergence of immunodominant epitope-loss viruses and virus-induced tumors.  (+info)

(3/1521) Use of the baculovirus system to assemble polyomavirus capsid-like particles with different polyomavirus structural proteins: analysis of the recombinant assembled capsid-like particles.

The genes encoding the structural proteins (VP1, VP2 and VP3) of murine polyomavirus were cloned into the p2Bac dual multiple cloning site vector, individually or jointly, and the corresponding proteins were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells by cotransfecting Sf9 cells with the constructed vector and the linear DNA of Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). Recombinant capsid-like particles could be purified 5 days post-infection from Sf9 cells infected with AcMNPV-VP1, with or without the involvement of minor protein (VP2 or VP3). Although VP2 and VP3 alone could not generate recombinant particles, they became incorporated into these particles when expressed with VP1 in Sf9 cells. Recombinant particles with different polyomavirus structural protein(s) were obtained by using different combined expression of these proteins in Sf9 cells. Cellular DNA of 5 kbp in size was packaged in all of the recombinant particles, which showed the same diameter as that of native virions. Agarose gel electrophoresis indicated that DNA packaged in these recombinant particles had a different pattern than that of native virions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the VP1 species of recombinant particles showed more VP1 species than those of the native virions from mouse cells, and an additional species of VP1 when VP2 was co-expressed with VP1. The recombinant particles were also compared for their ability to compete for polyomavirus infection. The competition assay indicated that the recombinant particles containing VP2 were the most efficient in inhibiting the native polyomavirus infection of 3T6 cells.  (+info)

(4/1521) Polyomavirus infection of renal allograft recipients: from latent infection to manifest disease.

Polyomavirus (PV) exceptionally causes a morphologically manifest renal allograft infection. Five such cases were encountered in this study, and were followed between 40 and 330 d during persistent PV renal allograft infection. Transplant (Tx) control groups without PV graft infection were analyzed for comparison. Tissue and urine samples were evaluated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and PCR. The initial diagnosis of PV infection with the BK strain was made in biopsies 9+/-2 mo (mean +/- SD) post-Tx after prior rejection episodes and rescue therapy with tacrolimus. All subsequent biopsies showed persistent PV infection. Intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in epithelial cells along the entire nephron and the transitional cell layer were histologic hallmarks of infection. Affected tubular cells were enlarged and often necrotic. In two patients, small glomerular crescents were found. In 54% of biopsies, infection was associated with pronounced inflammation, which had features of cellular rejection. All patients were excreting PV-infected cells in the urine. PV infection was associated with 40% graft loss (2 of 5) and a serum creatinine of 484+/-326 micromol/L (mean +/- SD; 11 mo post-Tx). Tx control groups showed PV-infected cells in the urine in 5%. Control subjects had fewer rejection episodes (P<0.05) and stable graft function (P = 0.01). It is concluded that a manifest renal allograft infection with PV (BK strain) can persist in heavily immunosuppressed patients with recurrent rejection episodes. PV mainly affects tubular cells and causes necrosis, a major reason for functional deterioration. A biopsy is required for diagnosis. Urine cytology can serve as an adjunct diagnostic tool.  (+info)

(5/1521) Cynomolgus polyoma virus infection: a new member of the polyoma virus family causes interstitial nephritis, ureteritis, and enteritis in immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys.

Polyoma virus infection causes acute interstitial nephritis and ureteral stenosis in humans but has rarely been noted in other species. In the present study, a hitherto unknown polyoma virus was detected in 12 of 57 cynomolgus monkeys after 3 to 11 weeks of immunosuppression given to promote acceptance of renal allografts or xenografts. This virus, termed cynomolgus polyoma virus (CPV), is antigenically and genomically related to simian virus 40 (SV40). The tubular epithelial nuclei of the collecting ducts in the medulla and cortex reacted with an antibody for the SV40 large T antigen and by electron microscopy contained densely packed paracrystalline arrays of 30- to 32-nm diameter viral particles. A polymerase chain reaction analysis of DNA extracted from affected kidneys detected polyoma virus sequences using primers for a highly conserved region of the large T antigen of polyoma virus. Sequence analysis showed 7 base substitutions and 3 to 5 deletions in the 129-nucleotide segment of amplified products, compared with the corresponding portion of SV40, yielding 84% homology at the amino acid level. CPV caused interstitial nephritis in six renal allografts, a xenograft kidney, and six native kidneys. Infected animals showed renal dysfunction and had tubulointerstitial nephritis with nuclear inclusions, apoptosis, and progressive destruction of collecting ducts. CPV was detected in the urothelium of graft ureters, associated with ureteritis and renal infection. Viral infection was demonstrable in smooth muscle cells of the ureteric wall, which showed apoptosis. One animal had diarrhea and polyoma virus infection in the smooth muscle cells of the muscularis propria of the intestine. Spontaneous resolution occurred in one case; no animal had virus detected in tissues more than 3 months after transplantation. Thus, immunosuppression predisposes cynomolgus monkeys to a polyoma virus infection with clinical consequences quite similar to BK virus infection in humans, including renal dysfunction. We also suggest that this may be the pathogenetic basis for the significant incidence of late onset, isolated ureteral stenosis observed in these recipients.  (+info)

(6/1521) A novel animal model for hemangiomas: inhibition of hemangioma development by the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470.

Hemangiomas represent the most frequent tumors of infancy. However, the pathogenesis of these tumors is still largely unknown, and current treatment of juvenile hemangiomas remains unsatisfactory. Here we present a novel animal model to study proliferating hemangiomas and to evaluate the effect of angiostatic compounds on their growth. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection of 4-day-old rats with murine polyomavirus resulted in the development of multiple cutaneous, intramuscular (i.m.), and cerebral hemangiomas with 100% frequency. Histological examination of the brain revealed the formation of immature lesions as soon as 4 days postinfection (p.i.). The subsequent exponential growth of the hemangiomas, both in number and size, was associated with severe hemorrhage and anemia. The cerebral, cutaneous, and i.m. lesions consisted of blood-filled cysts, histologically similar to human cavernous hemangiomas and stained positive for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and vascular endothelial growth factor. Mature cerebral hemangiomas also expressed von Willebrand factor. Cerebral lesions caused death of the untreated animals within 19.2 +/- 1.1 days p.i. Remarkably fewer and smaller hemangiomas developed in animals that had been treated s.c. with the angiogenesis inhibitor TNP-470. Accordingly, TNP-470 (50 mg/kg), administered twice a week from 3 days p.i., significantly delayed tumor-associated mortality [mean day of death, 28.2 +/- 3.3 (P < 0.001)]. Even if therapy was initiated when cerebral hemangiomas were already macroscopically visible (i.e., 9 days p.i.), a significant delay in hemangioma-associated mortality was observed. Also, the IFN-inducer polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid caused a delay of 9 days (P < 0.005) in tumor-associated mortality when administered i.p. at 5 mg/kg, twice a week, starting at day 3 p.i. The model described here may be useful for investigating (a) the angiogenic mechanism(s) underlying hemangioma progression; and (b) the effect of anti-angiogenic compounds on vascular tumor growth.  (+info)

(7/1521) Discrimination between sialic acid-containing receptors and pseudoreceptors regulates polyomavirus spread in the mouse.

Variations in the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1 underlie important biological differences between highly pathogenic large-plaque and relatively nonpathogenic small-plaque strains. These polymorphisms constitute major determinants of virus spread in mice and also dictate previously recognized strain differences in sialyloligosaccharide binding. X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that these determinants affect binding to the sialic acids. Here we report results of further experiments designed to test the importance of specific contacts between VP1 and the carbohydrate moieties of the receptor. With minor exceptions, substitutions at positions predicted from crystallography to be important in binding the terminal alpha-2,3-linked sialic acid or the penultimate sugar (galactose) destroyed the ability of the virus to replicate in cell culture. Substitutions that prevented binding to a branched disialyloligosaccharide were found to result in viruses that were both viable in culture and tumorigenic in the mouse. Conversely, substitutions that allowed recognition and binding of the branched carbohydrate chain inhibited spread in the mouse, though the viruses remained viable in culture. Mice of five different inbred strains, all highly susceptible to large-plaque virus, showed resistance to the spread of polyomavirus strains bearing the VP1 type which binds the branched-chain receptor. We suggest that glycoproteins bearing the appropriate O-linked branched sialyloligosaccharide chains are effective pseudoreceptors in the host and that they block the spread of potentially tumorigenic or virulent virus strains.  (+info)

(8/1521) Formation of transformed endothelial cells in the absence of VEGFR-2/Flk-1 by Polyoma middle T oncogene.

The middle T antigen of murine Polyomavirus (PymT) rapidly transforms endothelial cells leading to vascular malformations reminiscent of endothelial tumors or hemangiomas. Flk-1, a receptor tyrosine kinase which is activated upon binding of its ligand VEGF, is predominantly expressed in endothelial cells and essential for the formation of blood vessels since absence of Flk-1 prevents the development of mature endothelial cells in mice and in ES-cell differentiation experiments. To investigate the role of Flk-1 in PymT-induced vascular tumor formation, we studied the expression of Flk-1 and VEGF in PymT-transformed endothelial cells (Endothelioma cells, END. cells). The receptor and its ligand were both expressed in END. cells suggesting that a VEGF/Flk-1 autocrine loop might be causally involved in the formation of vascular tumors. To test this hypothesis, ES cells lacking Flk-1 were generated and the transforming potential of PymT was analysed after in vitro differentiation. Flk-1(-/-) END. cell lines were established which are morphologically identical to flk-1(+/+) END. cells and which express several markers characteristic for endothelial cells. This result suggests that PymT functionally replaces the requirement of Flk-1 in expansion and/or survival of endothelial progenitor cells. Therefore, flk-1(-/-) END. cells provide a powerful tool to dissect the downstream signaling pathways of Flk-1.  (+info)