Kinetic characterization of Aspergillus niger N400 endopolygalacturonases I, II and C.
Endopolygalacturonases I, II and C isolated from recombinant Aspergillus niger strains were characterized with respect to pH optimum, activity on polygalacturonic acid and mode of action and kinetics on oligogalacturonates of different chain length (n = 3-7). Apparent Vmax values using polygalacturonate as a substrate at the pH optimum, pH 4.1, were calculated as 13.8 mukat.mg-1, 36.5 mukat.mg-1 and 415 nkat.mg-1 for endopolygalacturonases I, II and C, respectively. K(m) values were < 0.15 mg.mL-1 for all three enzymes. Product progression analysis using polygalacturonate as a substrate revealed a random cleavage pattern for all three enzymes and suggested processive behavior for endopolygalacturonases I and C. This result was confirmed by analysis of the mode of action using oligogalacturonates. Processivity was observed when the degree of polymerization of the substrate exceeded 5 or 6 for endopolygalacturonase I and endopolygalacturonase C, respectively. The bond-cleavage frequencies obtained for the hydrolysis of the oligogalacturonates were used to assess subsite maps. The maps indicate that the minimum number of subsites is seven for all three enzymes. Using pectins of various degrees of esterification, it was shown that endopolygalacturonase II is the most sensitive to the presence of methyl esters. Like endopolygalacturonase II, endopolygalacturonases I, C and E, which was also included in this part of the study, preferred the non-esterified pectate. Additional differences in substrate specificity were revealed by analysis of the reaction products of hydrolysis of a mixture of pectate lyase-generated delta 4,5-unsaturated oligogalacturonates of degree of polymerization 4-8. Whereas endopolygalacturonase I showed a strong preference for generating the delta 4,5-unsaturated dimer, with endopolygalacturonase II the delta 4,5-unsaturated trimer accumulated, indicating further differences in substrate specificity. For endopolygalacturonases C and E both the delta 4,5-unsaturated dimer and trimer were observed, although in different ratios. (+info)
Cloning and partial characterization of endopolygalacturonase genes from Botrytis cinerea.
Botrytis cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus infecting over 200 different plant species. We use a molecular genetic approach to study the process of pectin degradation by the fungus. Recently, we described the cloning and characterization of an endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) gene from B. cinerea (Bcpg1) which is required for full virulence. Here we describe the cloning and characterization of five additional endoPG-encoding genes from B. cinerea SAS56. The identity at the amino acid level between the six endoPGs of B. cinerea varied from 34 to 73%. Phylogenetic analysis, by using a group of 35 related fungal endoPGs and as an outgroup one plant PG, resulted in the identification of five monophyletic groups of closely related proteins. The endoPG proteins from B. cinerea SAS56 could be assigned to three different monophyletic groups. DNA blot analysis revealed the presence of the complete endoPG gene family in other strains of B. cinerea, as well as in other Botrytis species. Differential gene expression of the gene family members was found in mycelium grown in liquid culture with either glucose or polygalacturonic acid as the carbon source. (+info)
Use of green fluorescent protein to detect expression of an endopolygalacturonase gene of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum during bean infection.
The 5' noncoding region of clpg2, an endopolygalacturonase gene of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, was fused to the coding sequence of a gene encoding a green fluorescent protein (GFP), and the construct was introduced into the fungal genome. Detection of GFP accumulation by fluorescence microscopy examination revealed that clpg2 was expressed at the early stages of germination of the conidia and during appressorium formation both in vitro and on the host plant. (+info)
kdgREcc negatively regulates genes for pectinases, cellulase, protease, HarpinEcc, and a global RNA regulator in Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora.
Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora produces extracellular pectate lyase (Pel), polygalacturonase (Peh), cellulase (Cel), and protease (Prt). The concerted actions of these enzymes largely determine the virulence of this plant-pathogenic bacterium. E. carotovora subsp. carotovora also produces HarpinEcc, the elicitor of the hypersensitive reaction. We document here that KdgREcc (Kdg, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate; KdgR, general repressor of genes involved in pectin and galacturonate catabolism), a homolog of the E. chrysanthemi repressor, KdgREch and the Escherichia coli repressor, KdgREco, negatively controls not only the pectinases, Pel and Peh, but also Cel, Prt, and HarpinEcc production in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. The levels of pel-1, peh-1, celV, and hrpNEcc transcripts are markedly affected by KdgREcc. The KdgREcc- mutant is more virulent than the KdgREcc+ parent. Thus, our data for the first time establish a global regulatory role for KdgREcc in E. carotovora subsp. carotovora. Another novel observation is the negative effect of KdgREcc on the transcription of rsmB (previously aepH), which specifies an RNA regulator controlling exoenzyme and HarpinEcc production. The levels of rsmB RNA are higher in the KdgREcc- mutant than in the KdgREcc+ parent. Moreover, by DNase I protection assays we determined that purified KdgREcc protected three 25-bp regions within the transcriptional unit of rsmB. Alignment of the protected sequences revealed the 21-mer consensus sequence of the KdgREcc-binding site as 5'-G/AA/TA/TGAAA[N6]TTTCAG/TG/TA-3'. Two such KdgREcc-binding sites occur in rsmB DNA in a close proximity to each other within nucleotides +79 and +139 and the third KdgREcc-binding site within nucleotides +207 and +231. Analysis of lacZ transcriptional fusions shows that the KdgR-binding sites negatively affect the expression of rsmB. KdgREcc also binds the operator DNAs of pel-1 and peh-1 genes and represses expression of a pel1-lacZ and a peh1-lacZ transcriptional fusions. We conclude that KdgREcc affects extracellular enzyme production by two ways: (i) directly, by inhibiting the transcription of exoenzyme genes; and (ii) indirectly, by preventing the production of a global RNA regulator. Our findings support the idea that KdgREcc affects transcription by promoter occlusion, i.e., preventing the initiation of transcription, and by a roadblock mechanism, i.e., by affecting the elongation of transcription. (+info)
A leucine-rich repeat protein of carrot that exhibits antifreeze activity.
A gene encoding an antifreeze protein (AFP) was isolated from carrot (Daucus carota) using sequence information derived from the purified protein. The carrot AFP is highly similar to the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein (PGIP) family of apoplastic plant leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins. Expression of the AFP gene is rapidly induced by low temperatures. Furthermore, expression of the AFP gene in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants leads to an accumulation of antifreeze activity. Our findings suggest that a new type of plant antifreeze protein has recently evolved from PGIPs. (+info)
The specificity of polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP): a single amino acid substitution in the solvent-exposed beta-strand/beta-turn region of the leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) confers a new recognition capability.
Two members of the pgip gene family (pgip-1 and pgip-2) of Phaseolus vulgaris L. were expressed separately in Nicotiana benthamiana and the ligand specificity of their products was analysed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein-1 (PGIP-1) was unable to interact with PG from Fusarium moniliforme and interacted with PG from Aspergillus niger; PGIP-2 interacted with both PGs. Only eight amino acid variations distinguish the two proteins: five of them are confined within the beta-sheet/beta-turn structure and two of them are contiguous to this region. By site-directed mutagenesis, each of the variant amino acids of PGIP-2 was replaced with the corresponding amino acid of PGIP-1, in a loss-of-function approach. The mutated PGIP-2s were expressed individually in N.benthamiana, purified and subjected to SPR analysis. Each single mutation caused a decrease in affinity for PG from F.moniliforme; residue Q253 made a major contribution, and its replacement with a lysine led to a dramatic reduction in the binding energy of the complex. Conversely, in a gain-of-function approach, amino acid K253 of PGIP-1 was mutated into the corresponding amino acid of PGIP-2, a glutamine. With this single mutation, PGIP-1 acquired the ability to interact with F.moniliforme PG. (+info)
Hydrogen peroxide is generated systemically in plant leaves by wounding and systemin via the octadecanoid pathway.
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated in response to wounding can be detected at wound sites and in distal leaf veins within 1 hr after wounding. The response is systemic and maximizes at about 4-6 hr in both wounded and unwounded leaves, and then declines. The timing of the response corresponds with an increase in wound-inducible polygalacturonase (PG) mRNA and enzyme activity previously reported, suggesting that oligogalacturonic acid (OGA) fragments produced by PG are triggering the H2O2 response. Systemin, OGA, chitosan, and methyl jasmonate (MJ) all induce the accumulation of H2O2 in leaves. Tomato plants transformed with an antisense prosystemin gene produce neither PG activity or H2O2 in leaves in response to wounding, implicating systemin as a primary wound signal. The antisense plants do produce both PG activity and H2O2 when supplied with systemin, OGA, chitosan, or MJ. A mutant tomato line compromised in the octadecanoid pathway does not exhibit PG activity or H2O2 in response to wounding, systemin, OGA, or chitosan, but does respond to MJ, indicating that the generation of H2O2 requires a functional octadecanoid signaling pathway. Among 18 plant species from six families that were assayed for wound-inducible PG activity and H2O2 generation, 14 species exhibited both wound-inducible PG activity and the generation of H2O2. Four species, all from the Fabaceae family, exhibited little or no wound-inducible PG activity and did not generate H2O2. The time course of wound-inducible PG activity and H2O2 in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves was similar to that found in tomato. The cumulative data suggest that systemic wound signals that induce PG activity and H2O2 are widespread in the plant kingdom and that the response may be associated with the defense of plants against both herbivores and pathogens. (+info)
Polygalacturonase and polygalacturonase inhibitor protein: gene isolation and transcription in Glycine max-Heterodera glycines interactions.
The cell wall acts as the first line of defense during pathogen invasion. Polygalacturonases (PGs) are a class of cell-wall-modifying enzymes with precise temporal and organ-specific expression. A 350-bp fragment with high homology to PGs was identified by differential display (DD) analysis of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) race 3 resistant PI 437654 and susceptible cultivar Essex. The fragment was strongly expressed in Essex, 2 days after inoculation (DAI). Complete coding sequences of two PG cDNAs, PG1 and PG2, were isolated by 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends polymerase chain reaction (RACE PCR). PI 437654 and Essex had identical PG1 and PG2 sequences. A transversion from A to C created a PstI restriction site in the PG2 cDNA that was used to distinguish the two PG cDNAs by cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis. A cDNA encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibitor protein (PGIP) that is 89% identical to the Phaseolus vulgaris PGIP was isolated from soybean roots by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Steady-state levels of PG and PGIP were investigated by RNA gel blot analysis in roots 1 to 5 DAI and in hypocotyls and leaves. Differences in the constitutive levels of PG mRNAs were observed in roots of different soybean genotypes. Steady-state levels of PG mRNAs were enhanced during compatible interactions with SCN and reduced in incompatible interactions and in mechanically wounded roots. Enhanced PGIP transcription was observed in response to mechanical wounding in both PI 437654 and Essex, but only in compatible interactions with SCN, suggesting uncoupling of PGIP functions in developmental and stress cues. Constitutive expression in incompatible interactions shows PGIP is not a factor in SCN resistance. Thus, the up-regulation of endogenous PG transcription in soybean roots early after SCN infection could facilitate successful parasitism by SCN. (+info)