More failures of uncemented acetabular screw-rings than of cemented polyethylene cups in total hip arthroplasties.
The results of 498 total hip arthroplasties were prospectively studied. In 329 patients a cemented acetabular polyethylene cup was inserted. In 169 patients a threaded socket without cement was introduced. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 8 years and follow-up rate was over 90%. Of the 169 threaded sockets 8 required revision (4.7%), and 3 acetabular components were seen to be loose on X-ray. Of the cemented cups, only 2 (0.6%) required revision and none were considered loose on X-ray. (+info)
Poor eight-year survival of cemented zirconia-polyethylene total hip replacements.
Between January 1988 and January 1991 we performed 100 consecutive cemented total hip replacements using a zirconia head, a titanium alloy stem and a polyethylene cup. We reviewed 78 of these hips in 61 patients in detail at a mean of 5.8 years (1 to 9). Aseptic loosening was seen in 11 hips (14%). Eight needed revision. In total, 37 cups (47.5%) showed radiolucent lines, all at the cement-bone interface, with 18 (23%) involving all the interface. Of the 78 femoral implants, 17 (21.7%) showed radiolucent lines, and two, which had a complete line of more than 1 mm thick, definite endocortical osteolyses. There was also an abnormally high incidence of osteolysis of more than 2 mm at the calcar. Survivorship analysis showed that only 63% were in situ at eight years. These worrying results led us to abandon the use of zirconia heads, since at the same hospital, using the same femoral stem, cement and polyethylene cup, but with alumina femoral heads, the survival rate was 93% at nine years. We discuss the possible reasons for the poor performance of zirconia ceramic. (+info)
A prospective randomised multicentre trial comparing 10 Fr Teflon Tannenbaum stents with 10 Fr polyethylene Cotton-Leung stents in patients with malignant common duct strictures.
BACKGROUND: Stent blockage is a multifactorial process in which stent design and materials, bacteria, proteins, and bile viscosity play a role. AIMS: To compare the patency of the 10 Fr Teflon Tannenbaum (TT) stent to that of the 10 Fr Cotton-Leung (CL) polyethylene stent with sideholes, in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Patients were recruited to this prospective multicentre randomised study if they had a newly diagnosed malignant bile duct stricture below the hilum of the liver suitable for stenting with a 10 Fr stent. Data were collected and monitored by a professional monitoring company. Primary patency was the interval between stent placement and first exchange or death without recurrent jaundice. RESULTS: 134 consecutive patients were recruited between November 1994 and June 1997; 65 were randomised to the TT stent and 69 to the CL stent. Median patency and 95% confidence intervals were 181 (59, 303) days for the TT stent and 133 (92, 174) days for the CL stent, with no significant difference between the two stents (p=0.49). Median survival and 95% confidence intervals were 115 (71, 159) days for the TT stent and 151 (112, 190) days for the CL stent, with no significant difference between the two stents (p=0.765). CONCLUSION: Neither Teflon as a stent material nor the Tannenbaum design prolong the patency of plastic stents. (+info)
Adsorption and pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A in relation to mode of infusion in bone marrow transplant patients.
Two main factors that affect the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A (CsA) during 24-h durable intravenous (DIV) administration have been reported, namely physiological changes after bone marrow transplantation, and blood sampling through indwelling lines. In addition, it has been found that infusion sets made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) markedly adsorb CsA. We conducted in vitro adsorption studies of CsA on infusion sets, and the administration routes that are used in the treatment of patients with bone marrow transplantation. We also examined the effects of administration route on CsA pharmacokinetics in clinical practice. The in vitro adsorption study using 30-mm segments of lumen from commercially available infusion sets showed that the degree of CsA adsorption per area of lumen made of PVC was significantly higher than that in those made of polyethylene (PE) or polybutadiene (PB), which showed no adsorption of CsA. Due to its adsorption, use of infusion sets made of PVC resulted in about a 40-50% loss of CsA dose, which affected the pharmacokinetic parameters during 24-h DIV, while those made of PE and PB did not. The use of non-PVC infusion sets should allow for accurate monitoring of CsA results, and provide cost benefit in the treatment of bone marrow transplantation. (+info)
The role of the macrophage in periprosthetic bone loss.
Aseptic loosening after total joint replacement remains the most common reason for long-term implant failure. Macrophages activated by submicron wear particles of the polyethylene liner used in joint replacement have been shown to be the source of periprosthetic bone loss. Understanding the role of material chemistry in macrophage activation and the subsequent effects that macrophage-derived enzymes play in the degradation of implanted biomaterials is key to developing methods for prolonging the lifespan of implantable materials. (+info)
The effects of the concentration of high-density polyethylene particles on the bone-implant interface.
We used a rat model in vivo to study the effects of the concentration of polyethylene particles on the bone-implant interface around stable implants in the proximal tibia. Intra-articular injections of 10(4), 10(6) or 10(8) high-density polyethylene (HDPE) particles per joint were given 8, 10 and 12 weeks after surgery. The animals were killed after 14 and 26 weeks and the response at the interface determined. Fibrous tissue was seen at the bone-implant interface when the head of the implant was flush with the top of the tibia but not when it was sunk below the tibial plateau. In the latter case the implant was completely surrounded by a shell of bone. The area of fibrous tissue and that of the gap between the implant and bone was related to the concentration of particles in the 14-week group (p < 0.05). Foreign-body granulomas containing HDPE particles were seen at the bone-implant interface in animals given 10(8) particles. The pathology resembles that seen around prostheses with aseptic loosening and we suggest that this is a useful model by which to study this process. (+info)
Charnley low-frictional torque arthroplasty of the hip. 20-to-30 year results.
We reviewed 261 patients with 320 Charnley low-friction arthroplasties who had a mean follow-up of 22 years 10 months (20 to 30). Of these, 93.9% considered the operation to be a success; 82.3% were free from pain and 11.6% had occasional discomfort. Satisfactory function was achieved in 59.6% and 62% had an excellent range of movement. The clinical results did not correlate well with the radiological appearance; radiologically loose components did not affect the clinical outcome. The main long-term problem was wear and loosening of the UHMWPE cup. Our findings suggest that the radiological appearance of the arthroplasty is a more reliable indication of the state of the arthroplasty than the clinical results. (+info)
Cytotoxicity and macrophage cytokine release induced by ceramic and polyethylene particles in vitro.
Although the response of macrophages to polyethylene debris has been widely studied, it has never been compared with the cellular response to ceramic debris. Our aim was to investigate the cytotoxicity of ceramic particles (Al2O3 and ZrO2) and to analyse their ability to stimulate the release of inflammatory mediators compared with that of high-density polyethylene particles (HDP). We analysed the effects of particle size, concentration and composition using an in vitro model. The J774 mouse macrophage cell line was exposed to commercial particles in the phagocytosable range (up to 4.5 microns). Al2O3 was compared with ZrO2 at 0.6 micron and with HDP at 4.5 microns. Cytotoxicity tests were performed using flow cytometry and macrophage cytokine release was measured by ELISA. Cell mortality increased with the size and concentration of Al2O3 particles. When comparing Al2O3 and ZrO2 at 0.6 micron, we did not detect any significant difference at the concentrations analysed (up to 2500 particles per macrophage), and mortality remained very low (less than 10%). Release of TNF-alpha also increased with the size and concentration of Al2O3 particles, reaching 195% of control (165 pg/ml v 84 pg/ml) at 2.4 microns and 350 particles per cell (p < 0.05). Release of TNF-alpha was higher with HDP than with Al2O3 particles at 4.5 microns. However, we did not detect any significant difference in the release of TNF-alpha between Al2O3 and ZrO2 at 0.6 micron (p > 0.05). We saw no evidence of release of interleukin-1 alpha or interleukin-1 beta after exposure to ceramic or HDP particles. (+info)