The treatment of insulin resistance does not improve adrenal cytochrome P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation in polycystic ovary syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether metformin. when given to non-diabetic women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), results in a reduction of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia while body weight is maintained. Also we aimed to see whether the reduction in insulin levels attenuates the activity of adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme in patients with PCOS. DESIGN: We investigated the 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) and androstenedione responses to ACTH, insulin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and glucose disposal rate in an insulin tolerance test before and after metformin therapy (500 mg, orally, twice daily, for 12 weeks). METHODS: The presence of hyperinsulinemia in 15 women with PCOS was demonstrated by an OGTT and results were compared with those of 10 healthy women. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the rate of endogenous glucose disposal after i.v. bolus injection of insulin. 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were measured in all the women with PCOS and the normal women. RESULTS: Women with PCOS were hyperinsulinemic (102.0+/-13.0 (S.E.M.) VS 46.2+/-4.4 pmol/l) and hyperandrogenemic (free testosterone 15.3+/-1.7 vs 7.9+/-0.6 nmol/l; androstenedione 11.8+/-0.8 vs 8.2+/-0.6 nmol/l) and more hirsute (modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, 17.7+/-1.6 vs 3.0+/-0.3) than healthy women. In addition, women with PCOS had higher 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH when compared with healthy women. Metformin therapy resulted in some improvement in insulin sensitivity and reduced the basal and post-glucose load insulin levels. But 17-OHP and androstenedione responses to ACTH were unaltered in response to metformin. CONCLUSIONS: PCOS is characterized by hyperactivity of the adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme and insulin resistance. It seems that there is no direct relationship between insulin resistance and adrenal P450c17alpha enzyme dysregulation. (+info)
No association between the -308 polymorphism in the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) promoter region and polycystic ovaries.
The tumour necrosis factor (TNF)2 allele appears to be linked with increased insulin resistance and obesity, conditions often found in overweight patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The significance of TNFalpha polymorphism in relation to the clinical and biochemical parameters associated with PCOS was investigated in 122 well-characterized patients with polycystic ovaries (PCO). Of these, 84 had an abnormal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCOS, while the remaining 38 had a normal menstrual cycle and were classified as having PCO. There were a further 28 individuals without PCO (non-PCO) and 108 individuals whose PCO status was undetermined (reference population). The promoter region of the TNFalpha gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the presence or absence of the polymorphism at -308 was determined by single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The less common TNF allele (TNF2) was found as TNF1/2 or TNF2/2 in 11/38 (29%) of PCO subjects, 25/84 (30%) of PCOS subjects, 7/28 (25%) of non-PCO subjects, and 45/108 (42%) of the reference population. There was no significant difference in the incidence of the TNF2 allele between the groups. The relationship of TNF genotype to clinical and biochemical parameters was examined. In both the PCO group and the PCOS group, the presence of the TNF2 allele was significantly associated with lower glucose values obtained from the glucose tolerance testing (P<0.05). The TNF genotype was not significantly associated with any clinical or biochemical parameter measured in the PCO, PCOS or non-PCOS groups. Thus, the TNFalpha -308 polymorphism does not appear to strongly influence genetic susceptibility to polycystic ovaries. (+info)
The mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor alpha on aromatase activity in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries.
We investigated aromatization and the mechanism of action of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFalpha) on oestradiol biosynthesis in freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. Freshly prepared granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries incubated for only 3 h under basal conditions secreted significantly (P< 0.001) greater amounts of oestradiol-17beta than that of granulosa cells from normal ovaries. 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP), but not follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) or luteinizing hormone (LH), further enhanced this activity. Both EGF and TGFalpha inhibited gonadotrophinor 8-Br-cAMP-stimulated, but not basal, oestradiol production. LH receptor (LHR) binding, estimated by immunolabelling the bound LH, was significantly (P< 0.001) reduced in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries when compared with cells from normal ovaries. EGF or TGFalpha significantly reduced the binding in cultured cells from all patient groups (P< 0.05). More interestingly, a further increase of the inhibitory effect was seen in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries (P < 0.001). In conclusion, granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries contain high levels of basal aromatase activity in vitro, which is probably inherited from the in-vivo condition. EGF and TGFalpha suppress oestradiol synthesis at a step beyond the production of cAMP and also LHR binding with more effect in granulosa cells from polycystic ovaries. (+info)
Retrieval, maturation, and fertilization of immature oocytes obtained from unstimulated patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to determine whether immature oocytes could be retrieved under local anesthesia, whether these oocytes would mature and fertilize in vitro, and whether adequate endometrium development could be obtained after hormonal supplementation. METHODS: Ovum pick-up was performed under local anesthesia. Immature oocytes were cultured and inseminated. To prepare the endometrium, estradiolvalerate was administered in combination with micronized progesterone. RESULTS: Immature oocytes were obtained in all cases. Fifty-six percent (n = 30) of the oocytes developed into metaphase II (MII) after 48 hr of culture, and another 20% reached the MII stage by 72 hr. Normal fertilization was observed in only 10% of oocytes inseminated. No embryonic development occurred, and therefore embryo transfer was not performed in any of the patients. Endometrial microbiopsy was performed in all subjects and endometrial development was considered sufficient in eight patients. CONCLUSIONS: We collected immature oocytes from patients with polycystic ovary syndrome without general anesthesia. In vitro maturation of these oocytes seemed adequate but fertilization rates were poor. Sufficient endometrial quality was obtained after hormonal substitution. (+info)
Insulin in obstetrics: a main parameter in the management of pregnancy.
Insulin plays a central role in human pregnancy. Maternal insulin sensitivity decreases with advancing gestation in order to provide glucose and possibly other nutrients for feto-placental growth and energy needs. Moreover, alterations of insulin metabolism are clearly involved in the development of gestational diabetes. In recent years, hyperinsulinaemia has been also proposed as a possible pathogenic factor in the development of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia; furthermore it has also been postulated that there is an involvement of insulin sensitivity in fetal growth restriction. These intriguing data have stimulated our interest in summarizing the physiopathological mechanisms by which the pancreatic hormone could be involved in obstetrics. (+info)
The contributions of oestrogen and growth factors to increased adrenal androgen secretion in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Adrenal hyperandrogenism is prevalent in many women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), although the expression of this enhanced secretion may be heterogeneous. Since no single factor acts in isolation, this study was performed to assess the influence of oestradiol (total and unbound), insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF-II and the binding proteins IGFBP-I, and IGFBP-3, on basal and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulated adrenal androgen secretion in 25 women with PCOS and 10 matched ovulatory controls. Women with PCOS exhibited elevations of all androgens as well as unbound oestradiol, insulin and non-IGFBP-1 bound IGF-I. Positive correlations were noted between oestrogen and basal and ACTH stimulated delta 5 adrenal androgens. Serum IGF-I was only correlated with basal dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S), while insulin exhibited a strong correlation with the delta 4 pathway and androstenedione formation in particular. This correlation was also confirmed by dividing the PCOS group into those women with and without hyperinsulinaemia. The activity of 17,20 lyase favouring androstenedione was increased in the hyperinsulinaemic women. By multivariate analyses, body mass index did not influence these findings. Although there are inherent difficulties in making major conclusions based on correlative analyses, it is suggested that oestrogen may have a greater influence on enhancing delta 5 adrenal androgen secretion, and insulin a greater effect on the delta 4 pathway. In turn, the relative importance of these influences may contribute to the heterogeneous nature of adrenal hyperandrogenism in PCOS. (+info)
Oocyte quality and treatment outcome in intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients.
Patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have higher miscarriage rates. It is postulated that this is caused by a lower rate of mature oocytes, and a lower quality of embryos. Retrospectively we analysed 51 intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of 31 PCOS patients. These data were compared to age-matched controls (105 cycles) during the same period. All patients of both groups received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists prior to gonadotrophin treatment. The rate of metaphase II oocytes (MII) was not different. However, the mean absolute number of normally fertilized oocytes was significantly higher in PCOS patients (5.00 versus 3.56, P < 0.01), due to a higher number of oocytes retrieved. More embryos were transferred by cycle in the PCOS group (2.69 versus 2.17, P < 0.05), with a higher cumulative embryo score. The overall and multiple pregnancy rate showed no differences and the clinical abortion rate was lower (21 versus 41.67%, P < 0.05) in the controls. Our findings demonstrate that negative factors unconnected to oocyte morphology must be present in PCOS patients. It is possible that only cytoplasmic, not nuclear, maturity is influenced in these patients. (+info)
The pattern of changes in ovarian stromal and uterine artery blood flow velocities during in vitro fertilization treatment and its relationship with outcome of the cycle.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of short-term (2-3 weeks) pituitary suppression and controlled ovarian stimulation on ovarian and uterine artery Doppler measurements during the in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycle and to compare the pattern of these changes between conception and non-conception cycles as well as between patients with normal and those with polycystic ovaries. DESIGN: Prospective observational study of women undergoing IVF treatment. SUBJECTS: Women using the long-treatment buserelin protocol who did not have uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts or endometrioma. METHODS: Serial transvaginal color and pulsed Doppler measurements of ovarian stromal and uterine artery blood flow velocity were carried out in the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, on the day of pituitary suppression and on the day of administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The main outcome measures were the ovarian stromal and uterine artery blood flow peak systolic velocity (PSV) and pulsatility index (PI). RESULTS: A total of 105 patients were recruited but six patients were excluded from the analysis because they had only one stage of the measurements performed. There was a significant decline in mean ovarian stromal artery PSV after 2-3 weeks of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy but no effect on ovarian stromal artery PI. The mean uterine artery PSV or PI did not change significantly after 2-3 weeks of GnRH agonist therapy. There was a significantly higher mean ovarian stromal artery PSV in conception cycles compared to non-conception cycles in the early follicular phase and on the day of pituitary suppression, but not on the day of hCG administration. There were no differences between conception and non-conception cycles in the mean uterine artery PSV or PI. Women with polycystic ovaries had a higher mean ovarian artery PSV on all the three occasions of measurement. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that assessment of ovarian blood flow before commencement of gonadotropin stimulation may play a role in assessing cycles likely to result in pregnancy. (+info)