Anticoagulant carryover may influence clot formation in direct tube coagulase tests from blood cultures.
The tube coagulase test (TCT) performed directly from positive blood culture bottles has been used to reduce the turnaround time for identifying Staphylococcus aureus. Most reports have shown the test to be specific but often lacking sufficient sensitivity to be useful. In a prospective study of blood culture bottles (BCB) signaling positive, with a Gram-stained smear showing gram-positive cocci resembling staphylococci, the sensitivity of the direct TCT was improved by diluting the BCB broth 1:10 in saline before inoculating 0.1 ml into 1.0 ml of 10% pooled human plasma. It was hypothesized that the improved sensitivity might be explained by reduced carryover of the anticoagulant sodium polyanetholesulfonate (SPS) used in blood culture media. By titrating the inoculum size and the concentration of SPS in an in vitro checkerboard assay, it was shown that concentrations of SPS >0.0008% prevented plasma coagulation. The 1:10 dilution of blood culture broth reduced the amount of residual SPS carried over to the TCT to a level (0.0005%) that did not impair plasma coagulation. The direct TCT inoculated with a 1:10 saline dilution of blood culture broth achieved 100% specificity and sensitivity within 4 h of inoculation without reducing the quality or quantity of coagulum. (+info)
Evaluation of the sodium polyanethol sulfonate disk test for the identification of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius.
The previously reported sodium polyanethol sulfonate disk test for the identification of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius (Graves et al., 1974) was evaluated, with modifications. Three bands of brucella agar, three inoculum sizes, and two inoculum sources were compared. Nine stock cultures of P. anaerobius (eight normal flora isolates and ATCC 27337) and 16 fresh clinical isolates were used. All cultures of P. anaerobius showed inhibition zones of 12 to 30 mm in diameter, regardless of test conditions. Out of 103 clinical isolates of other species of anaerobic gram-positive cocci tested, only two had an inhibition zone size in this range (one P. micros of 11 studied had a zone of 12 mm and one P. prevotii of 14 studied had a zone of 16). The test had an overall accuracy of 98% in the identification of P. anaerobius from clinical specimens. Since P. anaerobius accounts for one-fifth to one-third of all anaerobic gram-positive cocci encountered in clinical specimens, this simple and rapid technique can be very useful for presumptive identification. (+info)
Mode of interaction of different polyanions with the first (C1,C1) the second (C2) and the fourth (C4) component of complement. IV. Activation of C1 in serum by polyanions.
Treatment of serum with dextransulphate polyvinylsulphate or polyanetholsulphonate resulted in a dose-dependent activation of C1 and C3; this was found for normal serum as well as for C4-deficient guinea-pig serum. Activation of C1 and C3 occurred at the same concentration of polyanions. The consumption of C3 in C4 deficient serum and the requirement of factor D of the alternative pathway indicate that C3 is activated via the alternative pathway. (+info)
Inactivation of classical and alternative pathway-activated bactericidal activity of human serum by sodium polyanetholsulfonate.
Sodium polyanetholsulfonate (SPS) at a final concentration of at least 250 microng/ml (0.025%) was required for inhibition of the bactericidal activity of 80% (vol/vol) of fresh human serum against "promptly serum-sensitive" strains of Serratia marcescens and control strain Escherichia coli C, i.e., for inhibition of the classical pathway of complement activation. In contrast, SPS at 125 microng/ml (0.0125%) was sufficient for neutralization of the bactericidal activity of 80% (vol/vol) fresh human serum against "delayed serum-sensitive" strains of S. marcescens known to activate the alternative pathway of human complement. Addition of up to 500 microng of SPS per ml to 80% (vol/vol) fresh human serum failed to neutralize transferrin-mediated, "late" bacteriostasis against control strain E. coli C, an effect that was demonstrable only after prolonged, i.e., overnight, incubation of the test strain. However, this late inhibitory effect against E. coli C was not observed in SPS-treated 20% (vol/vol) fresh human serum or in 10 or 20% (vol/vol) conventionally heat-inactivated human serum. Immunoelectrophoretic examination disclosed that SPS did not precipitate transferrin from either fresh or heat-inactivated human serum. Thus, SPS, at 250 microng/ml, was demonstrated to be sufficient for the inhibition of both classical and alternative complement pathway-activated bactericidal activity of 80% (vol/vol) human serum. However, SPS at a concentration of 500 microng/ml failed to antagonize one antimicrobial system of 80% (vol/vol) human serum, namely transferrin-mediated bacteriostasis. (+info)
Microcalorimetry as a tool for evaluation of blood culture media.
Evaluation of optimal compositions of blood culture media has called for extensive and laborious work in comparative studies of large series of clincal specimens. Bacterial growth is accompanied by heat production, and calorimetry provides an analytical tool for its detection and quantification. A twin microcalorimeter of the heat conduction type was used to register heat effects in experimentally infected blood cultures. When studying Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, larger heat effects were produced with 0.05% sodium polyanetholsulfonate than with 600 IU of heparin per ml, which was also the case when using 10% sucrose. The addition of IsoVitaleX (BBL) increased the heat effects produced by the two species mentioned, whereas it had the opposite effect in cultures of Neisseria meningitidis. The present study indicates that microcalorimetry is a valuable and time-saving tool for the evaluation of optimal compositions of bacterial culture media. (+info)
Effect of dilution on recovery of bacteria from blood.
The multiplication rate of bacteria in undiluted blood containing sodium polyanethol sulfonate was compared with growth rates obtained in dilutions of blood ranging from 1:2 to 1:8. Although all organisms tested grew in the undiluted blood, increased growth rates were seen in the 1:2 dilution. Further dilution resulted in growth rates equivalent to that obtained with the 1:2 dilution. In view of these results, we question the present recommendations that blood be diluted 1:10 or 1:20. (+info)
Gelatin neutralization of the inhibitory effect of sodium polyanethol sulfonate on Neisseria meningitidis in blood culture media.
The inhibitory effect of sodium polyanethol sulfonate (0.05%) upon growth of Neisseria meningitidis was found to be neutralized by adding gelatin (l.1%) to the growth medium. The neutralizing effect was demonstrated in solid medium, as well as in nutrient broth for blood cultures. The findings parallel those of Wilkins and West (6) regarding gelatin neutralization of the inhibitory effect of sodium polyanethol sulfonate on Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. (+info)
Use of sodium polyanetholesulfonate-CaCl2 for removal of serum nonspecific inhibitors of rubella hemagglutination: comparison with other polyanion-divalent cation combinations.
By using trypsin-treated human type O cells as indicators, we compared the abilities of four polyanion-divalent cation combinations (heparin-MnCl(2); high-and low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate-CaCl(2); and sodium polyanetholesulfonate [SPS]-CaCl(2)) for removal of serum non-immunoglobulin (lipoprotein) inhibitors of rubella hemagglutination. The combination of SPS-CaCl(2) was found to be the most effective, precipitating completely the pre-beta and beta-lipoproteins and reducing the alpha-lipoprotein levels by more than 50%. Hemagglutination patterns after this treatment were clear and stable, and, when normal sera were tested, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) titers were comparable to those obtained after standard heparin-MnCl(2) treatment. High-molecular-weight dextran sulfate-CaCl(2) removed serum lipoproteins almost as effectively as SPS-CaCl(2). However, problems of nonspecific agglutination and the heavy hemagglutination patterns resulting made this combination unacceptable for routine purposes. Neither low-molecular-weight dextran sulfate-CaCl(2) nor heparin-MnCl(2) removed the pre-beta lipoproteins completely, and occasionally traces of beta-lipoprotein also remained after treatment. The presence of pre-beta lipoproteins in normal sera after treatment may be of no consequence in the HI test since we have found that the very-low-density lipoprotein fractions obtained by ultracentrifugal methods from normal sera (those corresponding to the pre-beta fractions obtained by electrophoresis) had no HI activity. However, very-low-density lipoprotein fractions from all hyperlipemic sera tested had HI activity (titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:1,024) which, in the majority of cases, was not eliminated after heparin-MnCl(2) treatment. In every case, treatment with SPS-CaCl(2) removed this nonspecific activity completely. Since hyperlipemic sera may occasionally be encountered in routine rubella HI antibody testing, we recommend the use of SPS-CaCl(2) rather than heparin-MnCl(2) for pretreatment of sera. (+info)