Inward rectification in KATP channels: a pH switch in the pore.
Inward-rectifier potassium channels (Kir channels) stabilize the resting membrane potential and set a threshold for excitation in many types of cell. This function arises from voltage-dependent rectification of these channels due to blockage by intracellular polyamines. In all Kir channels studied to date, the voltage-dependence of rectification is either strong or weak. Here we show that in cardiac as well as in cloned KATP channels (Kir6.2 + sulfonylurea receptor) polyamine-mediated rectification is not fixed but changes with intracellular pH in the physiological range: inward-rectification is prominent at basic pH, while at acidic pH rectification is very weak. The pH-dependence of polyamine block is specific for KATP as shown in experiments with other Kir channels. Systematic mutagenesis revealed a titratable C-terminal histidine residue (H216) in Kir6.2 to be the structural determinant, and electrostatic interaction between this residue and polyamines was shown to be the molecular mechanism underlying pH-dependent rectification. This pH-dependent block of KATP channels may represent a novel and direct link between excitation and intracellular pH. (+info)
Polyamine profiles within genera of the class Actinobacteria with LL-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan.
Polyamine patterns of coryne- and nocardioform representatives of the class Actinobacteria with LL-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan, comprising strains of the genera Aeromicrobium, Nocardioides, Intrasporangium, Terrabacter, Terracoccus, Propioniferax, Friedmanniella, Microlunatus, Luteococcus and Sporichthya, were analysed. The different polyamine patterns were in good agreement with the phylogenetic heterogeneity within this group of actinomycetes. Strains of the closely related genera Nocardioides and Aeromicrobium were characterized by the presence of cadaverine. The second cluster, consisting of the type strains of the species Friedmanniella antarctica, Propioniferax innocua, Microlunatus phosphovorus and Luteococcus japonicus, displayed as a common feature the presence of the two predominant compounds spermidine and spermine. The presence of putrescine was common to the type strains of the species Intrasporangium calvum, Terrabacter tumescens and Terracoccus luteus. Sporichthya polymorpha, which is a representative of a separate line of descent, displayed spermidine as the predominant polyamine. These data indicate that polyamine patterns are suitable for the classification of actinomycetes with LL-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan. (+info)
Distinct sensitivities of OmpF and PhoE porins to charged modulators.
The inhibition of the anion-selective PhoE porin by ATP and of the cation-selective OmpF porin by polyamines has been previously documented. In the present study, we have extended the comparison of the inhibitor-porin pairs by investigating the effect of anions (ATP and aspartate) and positively charged polyamines (spermine and cadaverine) on both OmpF and PhoE with the patch-clamp technique, and by comparing directly the gating kinetics of the channels modulated by their respective substrates. The novel findings reported here are (1) that the activity of PhoE is completely unaffected by polyamines, and (2) that the kinetic changes induced by ATP on PhoE or polyamines on OmpF suggest different mechanisms of inhibition. ATP induces a high degree of flickering in the PhoE-mediated current and appears to behave as a blocker of ion flow during its presumed transport through PhoE. Polyamines modulate the kinetics of openings and closings of OmpF, in addition to promoting a blocker-like flickering activity. The strong correlation between sensitivity to inhibitors and ion selectivity suggests that some common molecular determinants are involved in these two properties and is in agreement with the hypothesis that polyamines bind inside the pore of cationic porins. (+info)
Polyamine depletion arrests cell cycle and induces inhibitors p21(Waf1/Cip1), p27(Kip1), and p53 in IEC-6 cells.
The polyamines spermidine and spermine and their precursor putrescine are intimately involved in and are required for cell growth and proliferation. This study examines the mechanism by which polyamines modulate cell growth, cell cycle progression, and signal transduction cascades. IEC-6 cells were grown in the presence or absence of DL-alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase, which is the first rate-limiting enzyme for polyamine synthesis. Depletion of polyamines inhibited growth and arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Cell cycle arrest was accompanied by an increase in the level of p53 protein and other cell cycle inhibitors, including p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p27(Kip1). Induction of cell cycle inhibitors and p53 did not induce apoptosis in IEC-6 cells, unlike many other cell lines. Although polyamine depletion decreased the expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-2 protein, a sustained increase in ERK-2 isoform activity was observed. The ERK-1 protein level did not change, but ERK-1 activity was increased in polyamine-depleted cells. In addition, polyamine depletion induced the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) type of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Activation of JNK-1 was the earliest event; within 5 h after DFMO treatment, JNK activity was increased by 150%. The above results indicate that polyamine depletion causes cell cycle arrest and upregulates cell cycle inhibitors and suggest that MAPK and JNK may be involved in the regulation of the activity of these molecules. (+info)
Reconstitution of a bacterial/plant polyamine biosynthesis pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Polyamine synthesis in most organisms is initiated by the decarboxylation of ornithine to form putrescine via ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Plants, some bacteria and some fungi and protozoa generate putrescine from arginine, via arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatine ureohydrolase (AUH) or agmatine iminohydrolase. A polyamine-requiring strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a mutation in the gene encoding ODC was transformed with plasmids bearing genes encoding Escherichia coli ADC and AUH. Transformants regained the ability to grow in the absence of exogenous polyamines and contained enzyme activities consistent with the presence of both prokaryotic enzymes. Similar results were obtained when a plasmid containing a gene encoding oat (Avena sativa L.) ADC was substituted for the E. coli gene. These data demonstrate the successful complementation of a yeast biosynthetic polyamine synthesis defect by genes encoding an alternative pathway found in bacteria; they also show that plant ADC can substitute for the bacterial enzyme in this pathway. The recombinant yeast provides a tool for the study of the functional properties of these enzymes and for discovery of compounds that specifically inhibit this pathway. (+info)
Isoform-selective activation of protein kinase C by nitric oxide in the heart of conscious rabbits: a signaling mechanism for both nitric oxide-induced and ischemia-induced preconditioning.
Although isoform-selective translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) epsilon appears to play an important role in the late phase of ischemic preconditioning (PC), the mechanism(s) responsible for such translocation remains unclear. Furthermore, the signaling pathway that leads to the development of late PC after exogenous administration of NO in the absence of ischemia (NO donor-induced late PC) is unknown. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that NO activates PKC and that this is the mechanism for the development of both ischemia-induced and NO donor-induced late PC. A total of 95 chronically instrumented, conscious rabbits were used. In rabbits subjected to ischemic PC (six 4-minute occlusion/4-minute reperfusion cycles), administration of the NO synthase inhibitor Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (group III), at doses previously shown to block the development of late PC, completely blocked the ischemic PC-induced translocation of PKCepsilon but not of PKCeta, indicating that increased formation of NO is an essential mechanism whereby brief ischemia activates the epsilon isoform of PKC. Conversely, a translocation of PKCepsilon and -eta quantitatively similar to that induced by ischemic PC could be reproduced pharmacologically with the administration of 2 structurally unrelated NO donors, diethylenetriamine/NO (DETA/NO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), at doses previously shown to elicit a late PC effect. The particulate fraction of PKCepsilon increased from 35+/-2% of total in the control group (group I) to 60+/-1% after ischemic PC (group II) (P<0.05), to 54+/-2% after SNAP (group IV) (P<0.05) and to 52+/-2% after DETA/NO (group V) (P<0.05). The particulate fraction of PKCeta rose from 66+/-5% in the control group to 86+/-3% after ischemic PC (P<0.05), to 88+/-2% after SNAP (P<0.05) and to 85+/-1% after DETA/NO (P<0.05). Neither ischemic PC nor NO donors had any appreciable effect on the subcellular distribution of PKCalpha, -beta1, -beta2, -gamma, -delta, - micro, or -iota/lambda; on total PKC activity; or on the subcellular distribution of total PKC activity. Thus, the effects of SNAP and DETA/NO on PKC closely resembled those of ischemic PC. The DETA/NO-induced translocation of PKCepsilon (but not that of PKCeta) was completely prevented by the administration of the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine at a dose of 5 mg/kg (group VI) (particulate fraction of PKCepsilon, 38+/-4% of total, P<0.05 versus group V; particulate fraction of PKCeta, 79+/-2% of total). The same dose of chelerythrine completely prevented the DETA/NO-induced late PC effect against both myocardial stunning (groups VII through X) and myocardial infarction (groups XI through XV), indicating that NO donors induce late PC by activating PKC and that among the 10 isozymes of PKC expressed in the rabbit heart, the epsilon isotype is specifically involved in the development of this form of pharmacological PC. In all groups examined (groups I through VI), the changes in the subcellular distribution of PKCepsilon protein were associated with parallel changes in PKCepsilon isoform-selective activity, whereas total PKC activity was not significantly altered. Taken together, the results provide direct evidence that isoform-selective activation of PKCepsilon is a critical step in the signaling pathway whereby NO initiates the development of a late PC effect both after an ischemic stimulus (endogenous NO) and after treatment with NO-releasing agents (exogenous NO). To our knowledge, this is also the first report that NO can activate PKC in the heart. The finding that NO can promote isoform-specific activation of PKC identifies a new biological function of this radical and a new mechanism in the signaling cascade of ischemic PC and may also have important implications for other pathophysiological conditions in which NO is involved and for nitrate therapy. (+info)
A new method for the assay of tissue. S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethione. Effect of pyridoxine deficiency on the metabolism of S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine and polyamines in rat liver.
The hepatic synthesis and accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine and polyamines were studied in normal and vitamin B-6-deficient male albino rats. A method involving a single chromatography on a phosphocellulose column was developed for the determination of S-adenosylhomocysteine and S-adenosylmethionine from tissue samples. Feeding the rat with pyridoxine-deficient diet for 3 or 6 weeks resulted in a four- to five-fold increase in the concentration of S-adenosylhomocysteine, whereas that of S-adenosylmethionine was only slighly elevated. The concentration of putrescine was decreased to half, that of spermidine was somewhat decreased and that of spermine remained fairly constant. The activities of L-ornithine decarboxylase, S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase, L-methionine adenosyltransferase and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase were moderately increased. S-Adenosylmethionine decarboxylase showed no requirement for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The major effect of pyridoxine deficiency of S-adenosylmethionine metabolism seems to be a block in the utilization of S-adenosylhomocysteine, resulting in the accumulation of this metabolite to a concentration that may inhibit biological methylation reactions. (+info)
The covalent attachment of polyamines to proteins in plant mitochondria.
Plant mitochondria from both potato and mung bean incorporated radioactivity into acid insoluble material when incubated with labelled polyamines (spermine, spermidine and putrescine). Extensive washing of mitochondrial precipitates with trichloroacetic acid and the excess of cold polyamine failed to remove bound radioactivity. Addition of nonradioactive polyamine stopped further incorporation of radioactivity but did not release radioactivity already bound. The radioactivity is incorporated into the membrane fraction. The labelling process has all the features of an enzymatic reaction: it is long lasting with distinctive kinetics peculiar to each polyamine, it is temperature dependent and is affected by N-ethylmaleimide. The latter inhibits the incorporation of putrescine but stimulates the incorporation of spermine and spermidine. Treatment of prelabelled mitochondria with pepsin releases bound radioactivity thus indicating protein to be the ligand for the attachment of polyamines. HPLC of mitochondrial hydrolysates revealed that the radioactivity bound to mitochondria is polyamines; traces of acetyl polyamines were also found in some samples. On autoradiograms of SDS/PAGE gels several radioactive bands of proteins were detected. Protein sequencing of labelled spots from a 2D gel gave a sequence which was 60% identical to catalase. We suggest that the attachment of polyamines to mitochondrial proteins occurs cotranslationally possibly via transglutaminases. (+info)