Antiallergic agents from natural sources. 3. Structures and inhibitory effects on nitric oxide production and histamine release of five novel polyacetylene glucosides from Bidens parviflora WILLD. (1/48)

Five new polyacetylene glucosides, bidensyneosides A1, A2, B, C (1-4), and 3-deoxybidensyneoside B (5), have been isolated from the air-dried whole plant of Bidens parviflora WILLD. The structures were identified based on spectroscopic analysis, physicochemical properties, and application of the modified Mosher method to be 3(R),8(E)-8-decene-4,6-diyne-1,3-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), deca-3(R),8(Z) 8-decene-4,6-diyne-1,3-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), 3(R)-deca-4,6,8-triyne-1,3-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3(R),8(E)-8-decene-4,6-diyne-1,3,10-triol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), and 8(E)-8-decene-4,6-diyne-1,10-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), respectively. These compounds inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma activated murine macrophages (RAW264.7) and also inhibited histamine release from rat mast cells stimulated by the antigen-antibody reaction.  (+info)

Effect of polyacetylenes on the neurite outgrowth of neuronal culture cells and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. (2/48)

Polyacetylenic alcohols and their linoleates isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER and Cirsium japonicum DC., of which the lipophilic extracts had been found to affect the neuritogenesis of cultured paraneurons, were demonstrated to have a significant neuritogenic effect on PC12h and Neuro2a cells. Panaxynol and the acetylenic triol in particular were highly efficient at concentrations > or = 2 microm. Panaxynol (20 mg/kg/d, i.p., for 3 d) was confirmed to improve scopolamine-induced memory deficit in mice (Y-maze task). It is suggested that the promotion of neuritogenesis in cultured paraneurons by the addition of panaxynol is related its ability to improve memory deficits in animals.  (+info)

Mode of inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by polyacetylenetriol, a novel inhibitor of RNA- and DNA-directed DNA polymerases. (3/48)

Polyacetylenetriol (PAT), a natural marine product from the Mediterranean sea sponge Petrosia sp., was found to be a novel general potent inhibitor of DNA polymerases. It inhibits equally well the RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activities of retroviral reverse transcriptases (RTs) (i.e. of HIV, murine leukaemia virus and mouse mammary tumour virus) as well as cellular DNA polymerases (i.e. DNA polymerases alpha and beta and Escherichia coli polymerase I). A study of the mode and mechanism of the polymerase inhibition by PAT has been conducted with HIV-1 RT. PAT was shown to be a reversible non-competitive inhibitor. PAT binds RT independently and at a site different from that of the primer-template and dNTP substrates with high affinity (K(i)=0.51 microM and K(i)=0.53 microM with dTTP and with dGTP as the variable substrates respectively). Blocking the polar hydroxy groups of PAT has only a marginal effect on the inhibitory capacity, thus hydrophobic interactions are likely to play a major role in inhibiting RT. Preincubation of RT with the primer-template substrate prior to the interaction with PAT reduces substantially the inhibition capacity, probably by preventing these contacts. PAT does not interfere with the first step of polymerization, the binding of RT to DNA, nor does the inhibitor interfere with the binding of dNTP to RT/DNA complex, as evident from the steady-state kinetic study, whereby K(m) remains unchanged. We assume, therefore, that PAT interferes with subsequent catalytic steps of DNA polymerization. The inhibitor may alter the optimal stereochemistry of the polymerase active site relative to the primer terminus, bound dNTP and the metal ions that are crucial for efficient catalysis or, alternatively, may interfere with the thumb sub-domain movement and, thus, with the translocation of the primer-template following nucleotide incorporation.  (+info)

Polyacetylene glycosides from Gymnaster koraiensis. (4/48)

Two polyacetylene glycosides, gymnasterkoreasides A and B, were isolated from the roots of Gymnaster koraiensis. Their structures were elucidated to be (3R)-8-decene-4,6-diyne-1,3-diol 1-O-beta-D-glucopyraside and (3R)-8-decene-4,6-diyne-1,3-diol 1-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyraside on the basis of spectroscopic analysis including COSY, HMQC, and HMBC experiments, as well as chemical methods, which confirmed the determination of a chiral center by the modified Mosher's method.  (+info)

Biomimetic lipid/polymer colorimetric membranes: molecular and cooperative properties. (5/48)

Characterization of membranes and of biological processes occurring within membranes is essential for understanding fundamental cellular behavior. Here we present a detailed biophysical study of a recently developed colorimetric biomimetic membrane assembly constructed from physiological lipid molecules and conjugated polydiacetylene. Various analytical techniques have been applied to characterize the organization of the lipid components in the chromatic vesicles and their contributions to the observed blue-to-red color transitions. Experiments reveal that both the polymerized units as well as the lipids exhibit microscopic phases and form domains whose properties and bilayer organization are interdependent. These domains are interspersed within mixed lipid/polymer vesicles that have a size distribution different from those of aggregates of the individual molecular constituents. The finding that fluidity changes induced within the lipid domains are correlated with the chromatic transitions demonstrates that the colorimetric platform can be used to evaluate the effects of individual molecular components, such as negatively charged lipids and cholesterol, upon membrane fluidity and thermal stability.  (+info)

Production of an allelopathic polyacetylene in hairy root cultures of goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.). (6/48)

Hairy roots of goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.) were induced by infecting axenic plants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain A4. Growth and allelopathic polyacetylene (cis-dehydromatricaria ester, cis-DME) production of two independent hairy root clones were examined in several culture media and light regimes. cis-DME contents in hairy roots were at the same level as those in normal roots. cis-DME production in root cultures was several-fold lower than that of native plants and greatly repressed by light.  (+info)

Determination of polyacetylenes and ginsenosides in Panax species using high performance liquid chromatography. (7/48)

A new HPLC method was developed to separate and identify three polyacetylenes (panaxynol, panaxydol and 1,8-heptadecadiene-4,6-diyne-3,10-diol) found in Panax species. The mobile phase was a linear gradient of 2 : 1 : 3 to 2 : 1 : 1 (v/v/v) methanol/acetonitrile/water in 40 min. HPLC analysis was performed at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min with UV detection at 254 nm. The contents of the polyacetylenes and ginsenosides in Panax ginseng (white ginseng and red ginseng), P. quinquefolium, P. japonicus, and P. noteginseng were determined using these methods. The species containing the highest polyacetylene content (0.080%) was P. quinquefolium cultivated in Nagano, Japan. Meanwhile, the species with the highest ginsenoside content (9.176%) was P. noteginseng cultivated in Yunnan, China.  (+info)

Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and expression of inflammatory mediators by polyacetylene spiroketals from Plagius flosculosus. (8/48)

Transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a key role for the inducible expression of genes mediating proinflammatory effects and is thus an important target for the development of antiinflammatory drugs. Here, we show that extracts from the plant Plagius flosculosus (L.) Alavi and Heyw. can inhibit the induction of NF-kappaB activity, and we describe the identification of three spiroketal compounds. Of those, only compound 1 could inhibit the phosphorylation and proteasomal degradation of IkappaB, thus preventing the nuclear import and DNA binding of NF-kappaB. Accordingly, compound 1, which is also found in the widely used medicinal herb chamomile, interfered with the LPS-induced production of IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and PGE2 in primary human monocytes.  (+info)