A prospective single centre study comparing computed tomography pneumocolon against colonoscopy in the detection of colorectal neoplasms.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography (CT) pneumocolon in the detection of colorectal neoplasms. METHODS: A total of 201 consecutive patients with colorectal symptoms or requiring surveillance for colorectal neoplasms underwent both conventional colonoscopy and CT pneumocolon. RESULTS: On conventional colonoscopy 13 invasive colorectal carcinomas were detected in 13 patients, and 118 polyps in 63 patients (14 polyps were > or =1 cm in diameter, 25 were 6-9 mm, and 79 were < or =5 mm). CT pneumocolon detected all 13 cancers, two false positive cancers, but only 20 polyps (seven were > or =1 cm). This resulted in a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval (CI) 87-100%) and specificity of 99% (95% CI 97-100%) for detection of invasive carcinoma, and a sensitivity of 73% (95% CI 56-90%) and specificity of 94% (95% CI 91-98%) for detection of invasive carcinoma and/or > or =1 cm polyps. CT pneumocolon also identified invasive carcinoma not seen at colonoscopy because of incomplete examination in three patients, and detected metastases in six colorectal carcinoma patients and extracolonic carcinoma in a further seven patients. CONCLUSIONS: CT pneumocolon had a high sensitivity and specificity for detection of invasive colorectal carcinoma but not colorectal polyps. CT pneumocolon may be suitable for initial investigation of patients with symptoms of colorectal malignancy. (+info)
Percutaneous radiological gastrostomy: a safe and effective method of nutritional tube placement in advanced ALS.
BACKGROUND: Enteral nutrition may be required in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and is usually achieved by percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). As PEG is not indicated in patients with severe respiratory impairment, an alternative is percutaneous radiological gastrostomy (PRG), involving air insufflation into the stomach under fluoroscopic guidance for tube insertion. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of PRG and its effect on survival and respiratory function in ALS patients with respiratory failure. METHODS: 25 consecutive ALS patients with severe dysphagia and forced vital capacity (FVC) <50% underwent PRG after October 2000. They were compared with 25 consecutive ALS patients with FVC <50% who underwent PEG before October 2000. Respiratory function was evaluated before and after the procedure. RESULTS: The two groups were similar for all relevant characteristics. PRG was successful in all cases, PEG in 23/25. One patient in each group died after the procedure. The mean survival time after the procedure was 204 days in the PRG group and 85 days in the PEG group (p<0.004). Respiratory function decreased more in the PEG group than in the PRG group (p<0.02). CONCLUSIONS: PRG appears to be safer than PEG in ALS patients with moderate or severe respiratory impairment, and is followed by a longer survival. (+info)
Assessment of spiral CT pneumocolon in preoperative colorectal carcinoma.
AIM: To investigate the value of spiral CT pneumocolon in preoperative colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: Spiral CT pneumocolon was performed prior to surgery in 64 patients with colorectal carcinoma. Spiral CT images were compared to specimens from the resected tumor. RESULTS: Spiral CT depicted the tumor in all patients. Comparison of spiral CT and histologic results showed that the sensitivity and specificity were 95.2%, 40.9% in detection of local invasion, and 75.0%, 90.9% in detection of lymph node metastasis. Compared to the Dukes classification, the disease was correctly staged as A in 6 of 18 patients, as B in 18 of 23, as C in 10 of 15, and as D in 7 of 8. Overall, spiral CT correctly staged 64.1% of patients. CONCLUSION: Spiral CT pneumocolon may be useful in the preoperative assessment of patients with colorectal carcinoma as a means for assisting surgical planning. (+info)
Near-fatal air embolus during arthrography of the hip in a baby aged four months.
We describe a near-fatal event, probably due to air embolism, following an air arthrogram for developmental hip dysplasia in a baby aged four months. The sequence of events and the subsequent treatment are described. There is little information about this complication in the literature. The presumed mechanism and alternative methods for confirmation of placement of the needle are discussed. We no longer use air arthrography in children. (+info)
A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of air insufflation versus carbon dioxide insufflation during ERCP.
Retinal haemorrhage as a complication of gas encephalography and gas myelography. Prospective study using oxgen gas with a discussion of pathogenetic mechanisms.
Seventy patients, submitted to oxygen encephalography and oxygen myelography, were examined by retinal funduscopy to establish the incidence of intraocular haemorrhages, a complication reported to be frequent by other investigators. We did not discover any retinal haemorrhages. Pathogenetic factors influencing intracranial or intraocular venous pressure or both are discussed, particularly the effect due to different technical procedures during the examination, and the type of anaesthesia used. (+info)
Air bronchogram in differential diagnosis of small peripheral lung cancers on CT image.
The computed tomographic (CT) images of 52 patients of small peripheral lung nodule < 3 cm proved pathologically were reviewed. Air bronchogram (AB) was found in 14 nodules on thin-section CT images, in which well or moderately differentiated small adenocarcinomas were only seen with lipidic growth. Squamous-cell, large-cell carcinomas and small benign lung nodules had no AB sign both on CT image and in pathologic specimens. (+info)