Interaction of the DNA-binding antitumor antibiotics, chromomycin and mithramycin with erythroid spectrin.
The aureolic acid group of antitumor antibiotics, chromomycin A3 and mithramycin, are well established as transcription inhibitors, which bind reversibly to DNA at and above physiological pH, in the presence of divalent metal ions such as Mg2+. As part of our broad objective to elucidate their intracellular mode of action, other than association with DNA, we studied their interactions with the erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, spectrin, in the absence and presence of magnesium. Different spectroscopic studies, such as absorbance, fluorescence and CD, have shown that both free chromomycin and mithramycin and their Mg2+ complexes bind to spectrin with an affinity higher than that reported for DNA. The affinity constants for the association of chromomycin and mithramycin (or their Mg2+ complexes) with spectrin are comparable with those for the association of spectrin with other cytoskeletal proteins, for example F-actin, ankyrin, protein 4.1, etc. The nature of the binding of the two antibiotics to spectrin is different. The mode of binding of the antibiotics with spectrin also changes in the presence of Mg2+. The interaction leads to a change in the tertiary structure of the protein. The relevance of the results to our understanding of the mode of action of the antibiotics is discussed. (+info)
Characterization of two polyketide methyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of the antitumor drug mithramycin by Streptomyces argillaceus.
A DNA chromosomal region of Streptomyces argillaceus ATCC 12596, the producer organism of the antitumor polyketide drug mithramycin, was cloned. Sequence analysis of this DNA region, located between four mithramycin glycosyltransferase genes, showed the presence of two genes (mtmMI and mtmMII) whose deduced products resembled S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. By independent insertional inactivation of both genes nonproducing mutants were generated that accumulated different mithramycin biosynthetic intermediates. The M3DeltaMI mutant (mtmMI-minus mutant) accumulated 4-demethylpremithramycinone (4-DPMC) which lacks the methyl groups at carbons 4 and 9. The M3DeltaM2 (mtmMII-minus mutant) accumulated 9-demethylpremithramycin A3 (9-DPMA3), premithramycin A1 (PMA1), and 7-demethylmithramycin, all of them containing the O-methyl group at C-4 and C-1', respectively, but lacking the methyl group at the aromatic position. Both genes were expressed in Streptomyces lividans TK21 under the control of the erythromycin resistance promoter (ermEp) of Saccharopolyspora erythraea. Cell-free extracts of these clones were precipitated with ammonium sulfate (90% saturation) and assayed for methylation activity using different mithramycin intermediates as substrates. Extracts of strains MJM1 (expressing the mtmMI gene) and MJM2 (expressing the mtmMII gene) catalyzed efficient transfer of tritium from [(3)H]S-adenosylmethionine into 4-DPMC and 9-DPMA3, respectively, being unable to methylate other intermediates at a detectable level. These results demonstrate that the mtmMI and mtmMII genes code for two S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases responsible for the 4-O-methylation and 9-C-methylation steps of the biosynthetic precursors 4-DPMC and 9-DPMA3, respectively, of the antitumor drug mithramycin. A pathway is proposed for the last steps in the biosynthesis of mithramycin involving these methylation events. (+info)
Biospecific interaction analysis (BIA) of low-molecular weight DNA-binding drugs.
DNA-binding drugs have been reported to be able to interfere with the activity of transcription factors in a sequence-dependent manner, leading to alteration of transcription. This and similar effects could have important practical applications in the experimental therapy of many human pathologies, including neoplastic diseases and viral infections. The analysis of the biological activity of DNA-binding drugs by footprinting, gel retardation, polymerase chain reaction, and in vitro transcription studies does not allow a real time study of binding to DNA and dissociation of the generated drugs/DNA complexes. The recent development of biosensor technologies for biospecific interaction analysis (BIA) enables monitoring of a variety of molecular reactions in real-time by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In this study, we demonstrate that molecular interactions between DNA-binding drugs (chromomycin, mithramycin, distamycin, and MEN 10567) and biotinylated target DNA probes immobilized on sensor chips is detectable by SPR technology using a commercially available biosensor. The target DNA sequences were synthetic oligonucleotides mimicking the Sp1, NF-kB, and TFIID binding sites of the long terminal repeat of the human immunodeficiency type 1 virus. The results obtained demonstrate that mithramycin/DNA complexes are less stable than chromomycin/DNA complexes; distamycin binds to both NF-kB and TATA box oligonucleotides, but distamycin/(NF-kB)DNA complexes are not stable; the distamycin analog MEN 10567 binds to the NF-kB mer and the generated drug/DNA complexes are stable. The experimental approach described in this study allows fast analysis of molecular interactions between DNA-binding drugs and selected target DNA sequences. Therefore, this method could be used to identify new drugs exhibiting differential binding activities to selected regions of viral and eukaryotic gene promoters. (+info)
Increased phosphorylation of transcription factor Sp1 in scleroderma fibroblasts: association with increased expression of the type I collagen gene.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential roles of transcription factors Sp1 and Sp3 in the increased expression of the human alpha2(I) collagen gene in scleroderma fibroblasts. METHODS: Dermal fibroblasts from 7 patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc; scleroderma) of recent onset and from 7 healthy individuals were studied. The levels of expression of alpha2(I) procollagen, Sp1, and Sp3 messenger RNA (mRNA), with or without stimulation by transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) or oncostatin M (OSM), were evaluated by Northern blot analysis, and the respective protein levels were determined by immunoblotting. The DNA binding activity of nuclear proteins recognizing the cis-acting elements in the human alpha2(I) collagen promoter was examined by gel mobility shift assays. The levels of Sp1 phosphorylation were investigated by immunoprecipitation using an antiphosphoserine-specific antibody. RESULTS: SSc fibroblasts showed basal alpha2(I) collagen mRNA levels that were approximately 3 times higher than those in normal fibroblasts. TGFbeta or OSM increased human alpha2(I) collagen mRNA expression in normal dermal fibroblasts, but these cytokines failed to increase alpha2(I) collagen mRNA levels in SSc fibroblasts. There were no significant differences in the levels of expression of Sp1 or Sp3 between SSc and normal fibroblasts. However, increased Sp1 phosphorylation was detected in SSc fibroblasts compared with normal fibroblasts. Mithramycin, a specific inhibitor of Sp1 binding, abolished the increased expression of the alpha2(I) collagen gene in SSc fibroblasts, in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the involvement of Sp1 in the up-regulation of expression of the alpha2(I) collagen gene in SSc fibroblasts. (+info)
Sp1 and Smad proteins cooperate to mediate transforming growth factor-beta 1-induced alpha 2(I) collagen expression in human glomerular mesangial cells.
The mechanism(s) by which Smads mediate and modulate the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signal transduction pathway in fibrogenesis are not well characterized. We previously showed that Smad3 promotes alpha2(I) collagen gene (COL1A2) activation in human glomerular mesangial cells, potentially contributing to glomerulosclerosis. Here, we report that Sp1 binding is necessary for TGF-beta1-induced type I collagen mRNA expression. Deletion of three Sp1 sites (GC box) between -376 and -268 or mutation of a CAGA box at -268/-260 inhibited TGF-beta1-induced alpha2(I) collagen promoter activity. TGF-beta1 inducibility was also blocked by a Smad3 dominant negative mutant. Chemical inhibition of Sp1 binding with mithramycin A, or deletion of the GC boxes, inhibited COL1A2 activation by Smad3, suggesting cooperation between Smad3 and Sp1 in the TGF-beta1 response. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that Sp1 and Smads form complexes with -283/-250 promoter sequences. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that endogenous Sp1, Smad3, and Smad4 form complexes in mesangial cells. In a Gal4-LUC reporter assay system, Sp1 stimulated the TGF-beta1-induced transcriptional activity of Gal4-Smad3, Gal4-Smad4 (266), or both. Using the transactivation domain B of Sp1 fused to the Gal4 DNA binding domain, we show that, in our system, the transcriptional activity of this Sp1 domain is not regulated by TGF-beta1, but it becomes responsive to this factor when Smad3 is coexpressed. Finally, combined Sp1 and Smad3 overexpression induces marked ligand-independent and ligand-dependent promoter activity of COL1A2. Thus, Sp1 and Smad proteins form complexes and their synergy plays an important role in mediating TGF-beta1-induced alpha2(I) collagen expression in human mesangial cells. (+info)
The Sp family of transcription factors in the regulation of the human and mouse MUC2 gene promoters.
Modulation of mucin gene expression is an important component both in the early steps of colon cancer development and in later tumor progression. Previous work from our laboratory and others has suggested that the Sp family of transcription factors may play an important role in the regulation of the human MUC2 gene. To determine whether this was an essential element, we extended our work to the cloning and analysis of 3.5 kb of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse Muc2 (mMuc2) gene. Comparative analysis between the mouse and human MUC2 promoter regions has identified a strong sequence homology between the mouse and human genes, including the presence of GC-rich boxes, the location and composition of which are maintained in the mouse and human genes. We show that these GC boxes are binding sites for Sp-family transcription factors and are functionally important since mithramycin, an inhibitor of Sp1/Sp3 binding, blocks MUC2 gene expression in HT29 cells. Furthermore, by a combination of gel shift analysis and site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified the relative contribution of individual GC boxes, and of the factors they bind, to the regulation of the mouse Muc2 promoter, which appears to be different in the mouse and human genes. Finally, we demonstrate by overexpressing Sp1 and Sp3 that the functional difference between the proximal promoter region of the MUC2 gene in the two species is not attributable to differential ability of this region to bind members of the Sp family of transcription factors, but rather to the different anatomy of the individual GC boxes in the mouse and human proximal promoters. (+info)
Sp1 involvement in the 4beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-mediated increase in resistance to methotrexate in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
4beta-Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA) increases the number of colonies resistant to methotrexate (MTX), mainly by amplification of the dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus. We showed previously that inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) prevents this resistance. Here, we studied the molecular changes involved in the development of TPA-mediated MTX resistance in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. TPA incubation increased the expression and activity of DHFR. Because Sp1 controls the dhfr promoter, we determined the effect of TPA on the expression of Sp1 and its binding to DNA. TPA incubation increased Sp1 binding and the levels of Sp1 protein. The latter effect was due to an increase in Sp1 mRNA. Dephosphorylation of nuclear extracts from control or TPA-treated cells reduced the binding of Sp1. Stable transfectants of PKCalpha showed increased Sp1 binding, and when treated with MTX, developed a greater number of resistant colonies than control cells. Seventy-five percent of the isolated colonies showed increased copy number for the dhfr gene. Transient expression of PKCalpha increased DHFR activity. Over-expression of Sp1 increased resistance to MTX, and inhibition of Sp1 binding by mithramycin decreased this resistance. We conclude that one mechanism by which TPA enhances MTX resistance, mainly by gene amplification, is through an increase in Sp1 expression which leads to DHFR activation. (+info)
Reversion of transcriptional repression of Sp1 by 5 aza-2' deoxycytidine restores TGF-beta type II receptor expression in the pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2.
The pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2 is not responsive to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) because of a lack of expression of the TGF-beta type II receptor (RII). We show that the lack of RII expression is caused by a deficit of the transcription factor Sp1. Nuclear run-off assays and Western immunoblot showed low levels of transcription and protein levels of Sp1, respectively. Treatment of MIA PaCa-2 cells with the DNA methyl transferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, resulted in an increase in the rate of Sp1 transcription, in Sp1 protein expression, and in the binding of Sp1 to the RII promoter. Ectopic expression of Sp1 cDNA in MIA PaCa-2 cells led to an increase in RII promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity and RII expression. Expression of Sp1 cDNA also caused a reduction in both growth and clonogenicity that was associated with restoration of responsiveness to TGF-beta. Conversely, cells that express RII (BxPC-3 and MIA PaCa-2 Sp1 transfectants) when treated with mithramycin, an inhibitor of Sp1 binding, showed a reduction in RII mRNA expression. The reduction of RII mRNA was attributed to a decrease in RII promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity that was associated with a decrease in Sp1 binding to the RII promoter. These data indicate that transcriptional repression of the Sp1 gene in MIA PaCa-2 cells plays a role in the transcriptional inactivation of the RII gene and thus lack of responsiveness to TGF-beta. (+info)