Effectiveness of silver nitrate compared to talc slurry as pleural sclerosing agent in rabbits. Influence of concomitant intrapleural lidocaine.
The ideal agent for producing pleurodesis has not been identified. Talc, the most commonly used, poses several problems. Another possibility is silver nitrate, which was widely used in the past. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of the intrapleural instillation of lidocaine in producing a pleurodesis with silver nitrate, to define the effect of lidocaine in the maturation of the collagen fibers, and to confirm that the pleurodesis after silver nitrate is stronger than after talc. METHODS: We studied three groups of 8 rabbits. Two groups received 0.5% silver nitrate; in one we had previously injected 0.5 ml of 2% lidocaine. The third group received 400 mg/kg talc (2 ml). The animals were sacrificed 28 days after the injection, and the pleural spaces were assessed grossly for evidence of pleurodesis and microscopically for evidence of inflammation and fibrosis. The total amount of pleural collagen and the distribution of thick and thin collagen fibers were quantified. Collagen was identified using picrosirius red stain. RESULTS: In the two groups that received silver nitrate (without lidocaine: 3.5 + 03 and with lidocaine: 3.2 + 0.3), the macroscopic pleurodesis (scale 0 - 4) was significantly (p = 0.001) better than that resulting from talc (1.6 + 0.2). The mean degree of pleural fibrosis induced by silver nitrate (3.5 + 0.2) was significantly (p = 0.004) higher than that induced by talc (1.9 + 0.1). The previous instillation of lidocaine resulted in a tendency for decreased amounts of fibrosis (3.1 + 0.4). The mean amount (10(3)mm2) of pleural collagen was significantly (p = 0.009) greater in the rabbits that received silver nitrate (116.9 + 22.7) than in those that received talc (10.7 + 3.4). The injection of lidocaine slightly reduced the collagen (80.1 + 30.3). The distribution of collagen fibers did not differ among the groups. CONCLUSION: This rabbit model clearly confirms that intrapleural silver nitrate is more effective than talc for producing pleurodesis. The previous intrapleural instillation of lidocaine results in a decreasing trend in the amount of collagen, but does not change the effectiveness of the pleural fusion or modify the process of collagen maturation. (+info)
We describe a case of pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis (LAM) with chylothorax that developed in a 46-year-old Japanese woman. This patient exhibited clinical symptoms of dyspnea and chest X-ray showed right pleural effusion. Thoracocentesis demonstrated chylous effusion. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple cystic lesions. Subsequent thoracoscopy revealed the chylorrhea from swelled vessels on the diaphragm. The clinical diagnosis, based on histological examinations with biopsy specimens obtained by thoracoscopy, was pulmonary LAM. Although the hormone therapy was not effective, chylous effusion was improved by the pleurodesis. Pulmonary LAM developing chylothorax is rare in Japan. (+info)
Video assisted thoracoscopic bullectomy and acromycin pleurodesis: an effective treatment for spontaneous pneumothorax.
The introduction of video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has led to the development of several endoscopic options for the management of spontaneous pneumothorax. We describe here our experience in the management of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SP). We carried out 58 VATS procedures on 55 patients during the period 1993-95. There were six conversions to open thoracotomy because of dense adhesions in five patients and a large apical bulla of 20 cm in one. These patients were excluded from the study. The remaining 49 patients underwent 52 VATS procedures. There were 37 males and 12 females with a median age of 23 (range: 15-71) years. The indications for surgery were persistent SP for more than 5 days in 21 (40%), and recurrent SP in 31 (60%). Twenty-six procedures (25 patients) consisted of bullectomy alone (group 1; 1/1/93-30/9/94) and the next 26 procedures (24 patients) included chemical pleurodesis with 2 g of Acromycin (Lederle) in 10 ml of 0.9 normal saline (group 2; 1/10/94-31/12/95). Both groups had a mean follow up of 38 months (range: 36-40). Mean postoperative chest drainage in group 2 (3.1 +/- 1.09) was significantly shorter than in group 1 (4.7 +/- 1.0). Group 2 patients also had a shorter hospital stay (4.8 /- 1.08 vs. 6.76 +/- 1.09). There were five (20%) recurrences in group 1 while only one (4%) occurred in group 2. In view of these results we recommend the routine use of Acromycin pleurodesis in addition to thoracoscopic bullectomy. (+info)
Transforming growth factor beta(2) (TGF beta(2)) produces effective pleurodesis in sheep with no systemic complications.
BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that transforming growth factor (TGF)beta(2) induces effective pleurodesis in rabbits. However, rabbits have a thin pleura while humans have a thick visceral pleura. The effect of intrapleural administration of TGF beta(2) in animals with a thick pleura and its associated systemic effects have not been investigated. This study was undertaken (1) to develop a new animal model for the study of pleurodesis using sheep which have a thick pleura resembling that of humans; (2) to study the efficacy of TGF beta(2) as a pleurodesis agent in the sheep model; and (3) to assess whether histological changes occur in extrapulmonary organs after intrapleural administration of TGF beta(2). METHODS: Twelve sheep were divided into four groups and were given a single intrapleural injection of TGF beta(2) in a concentration of 1.0 microg/kg, 0.5 microg/kg, 0.25 microg/kg or 0.125 microg/kg to the right pleural cavity via a chest tube. The left pleural cavity served as the control. Any pleural fluid that accumulated after the intrapleural TGF beta(2) injection was collected and analysed. The degree of pleurodesis was graded from 1 (no adhesions) to 8 (complete symphysis >50% of chest wall) at day 14 when the sheep were killed. Biopsy specimens were taken from the lungs and extrapulmonary organs. RESULTS: All sheep that received > or = 0.25 microg/kg TGF beta(2) developed excellent pleurodesis (score = 8) while those that received 0.125 microg/kg had a median score of 6. The pleurodesis score did not exceed 2 in the control (left) side of any sheep. Sheep receiving > or = 0.50 microg/kg TGF beta(2) developed large exudative pleural effusions while those receiving a lower dose did not. The production of effusions neither hindered nor was necessary for inducing pleurodesis. There were no significant fibrotic changes in any of the extrapulmonary organs. CONCLUSION: Intrapleural injection of 0.25-1.0 microg/kg TGF beta(2) produces excellent pleurodesis in a new sheep model with no evidence of extrapulmonary fibrosis. (+info)
Comparison of the effectiveness of some pleural sclerosing agents used for control of effusions in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a review of 117 cases.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Management of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has been an important clinical issue regardless of the treatment modality employed. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of oxytetracycline (OT), Corynebacterium parvum (CP), and nitrogen mustard (NM) in the management of pleural effusion associated with MPM. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen patients who had stage-2 MPM or over according to the Butchart staging system and unilateral or bilateral pleural effusion took part in the study. The patients received either OT (35 mg/kg), CP (7 mg), or NM (0.4 mg/kg) through a chest tube for pleurodesis. The association between several clinical parameters and patient survival was also investigated. RESULTS: OT was applied to 59, CP to 29 and NM to 29 cases. A statistical analysis of the results obtained by these agents have demonstrated that OT (30 days, 81%; 90 days, 76.2%) and CP (30 days, 86.2%; 90 days, 79.3%) led to a significantly higher rate of successful pleurodesis as compared to NM (30 days, 48.2%; 90 days, 41.3%; p <0.05). Although the procedure was generally well tolerated by the patients, the NM-treated group experienced significantly more nausea-vomiting (46.1%) and hypotension (35.8%) compared to patients who received OT (nausea-vomiting and hypotension 4.3%; p < 0.001) and CP (nausea-vomiting and hypotension 5.1%; p < 0.001). Furthermore, we found that thrombocytosis, chest pain and weight loss were significantly associated with poor prognosis, whereas epithelial type had a positive effect on survival. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that OT and CP may be used as effective sclerosing agents for pleurodesis in the control of pleural effusions associated with MPM, without major side effects. (+info)
Radicular involvement and medullary invasion from a malignant mesothelioma.
We present the case of a 57-year-old patient who had worked at a fiber-cement factory for 28 years. The patient developed an epithelioid-type pleural mesothelioma 5 years after retiring, after he was diagnosed with asbestosis. Only 5 months after the diagnosis of mesothelioma, a medullar section appeared to be totally invaded by a tumor in the medullar canal, thus causing paraplegia and affecting the bladder and anal sphincters. The patient underwent radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and achieved partial recovery, but died 9 months after the diagnosis. (+info)
Transforming growth factor beta2 induced pleurodesis is not inhibited by corticosteroids.
BACKGROUND: Talc and tetracyclines induce pleurodesis by directly injuring the pleura. The injury results in intense inflammation which subsequently leads to fibrosis. Corticosteroids can inhibit talc pleurodesis by reducing the inflammatory process. We hypothesised that transforming growth factor beta2 (TGFbeta2), a fibrogenic cytokine with immunomodulatory functions, could induce effective pleurodesis without generating significant pleural inflammation and therefore remain effective despite co-administration of corticosteroids. METHODS: Thirty rabbits were divided into two groups. Rabbits in the steroid group received weekly intramuscular injections of triamcinolone diacetate (0.8 mg/kg). Ten rabbits in each group were given 5.0 microg TGFbeta2 intrapleurally via a chest tube while the remaining five received 1.7 microg TGFbeta2. Pleurodesis was graded macroscopically after 14 days from 1 (none) to 8 (>50% symphysis). RESULTS: TGFbeta2 produced excellent pleurodesis at both 5.0 microg and 1.7 microg doses. The pleural effusions produced after the injection were low in all inflammatory markers. No significant differences were seen between the steroid group and controls in macroscopic pleurodesis scores (7.2 (1.3) v 7.1 (1.2)), levels of inflammatory markers in the pleural fluids (leucocyte 1107 (387)/mm(3) v 1376 (581)/mm(3); protein 3.1 (0.3) mg/dl v 2.9 (0.3) mg/dl, and LDH 478 (232) IU/l v 502 (123) IU/l), and the degree of microscopic pleural fibrosis and pleural inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: TGFbeta2 can induce effective pleurodesis and remains effective in the presence of high dose parenteral corticosteroids. (+info)
Factors related to pleural effusions after Fontan procedure in the era of fenestration.
BACKGROUND: Significant pleural effusions after the Fontan operation prolong hospital stay, may increase the risk of infection, and may necessitate a pleurodesis procedure. METHODS AND RESULTS: From February 1991 to April 2000, 98 consecutive patients under the age of 18 years underwent the fenestrated Fontan procedure at Children's Hospital of Wisconsin. Ninety-four patients who survived at least 30 days after surgery were retrospectively evaluated for the following factors: age, ventricular morphology (right single ventricle, left single ventricle [RV/LV]), fenestration open (FO) or closed (FC) at end of operation, intracardiac Fontan (IF) or extracardiac Fontan (EF), days with chest tube output per day >5, 10, and/or 20 mL. kg(-1). d(-1) (CTO5, CTO10, and CTO20, respectively), need for pleurodesis, length of hospital stay (LOS), operation during winter respiratory viral season of November through March (ReVS+, ReVS-), and pre-Fontan mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). In univariate analysis, the ReVS+ patients had prolonged LOS, greater chest tube output, and more pleurodesis (P<0.05), and PAP was related to CTO5 and CTO10 but not to CTO20 or LOS. No significant differences were found in LOS, CTO5, CTO10, CTO20, and need for pleurodesis between patients in RV/LV, FO/FC, IF/EF, or PVR groups. Patients <4 years of age had more instances of CTO20 (P<0.05). When we used ordinary least squares regression analysis with age, FO or FC, RV or LV, PAP, and ReVS+ or ReVS- to predict each of CTO5, CTO10, CTO20, and LOS, only ReVS+ or ReVS- and age were statistically significant in all models. CONCLUSIONS: Use of the Fontan procedure during the respiratory viral season appeared to be related to significant, prolonged pleural effusions and longer hospitalizations. (+info)