(1/2217) Fractionated administration of irinotecan and cisplatin for treatment of lung cancer: a phase I study.
A combination chemotherapy of irinotecan (CPT-11) and cisplatin (CDDP) has been reported to be active for lung cancer. In the previous trial, however, diarrhoea and leucopenia became the major obstacle for sufficient dose escalation of CPT-11 to improve the treatment outcome. We conducted a phase I study to investigate whether the fractionated administration of CDDP and CPT-11 at escalated dose was feasible and could improve the treatment outcome. Twenty-four previously untreated patients with unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or extensive disease of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) were eligible. Both CDDP and CPT-11 were given on days 1 and 8, and repeated every 4 weeks. The dose of CDDP was fixed at 60 mg m(-2) and given by 1-h infusion before CPT-11 administration. The starting dose of CPT-11 was 40 mg m(-2), and the dose was escalated by an increase of 10 mg m(-2). The maximally tolerated dose of CPT-11 was determined as 60 mg m(-2) because grade 4 haematological or grade 3 or 4 non-haematological toxicities developed in six patients out of 11 patients evaluated. Diarrhoea became a dose-limiting toxicity. The objective response rates were 76% for NSCLC and 100% for SCLC. The recommended dose of CPT-11 and CDDP in a phase II study will be 50 mg m(-2) and 60 mg m(-2) respectively. (+info)
(2/2217) Bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and thrombin receptor activating peptide in guinea-pigs in vivo.
1. Several thrombin cellular effects are dependent upon stimulation of proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) localized over the cellular surface. Following activation by thrombin, a new N-terminus peptide is unmasked on PAR-1 receptor, which functions as a tethered ligand for the receptor itself. Synthetic peptides called thrombin receptor activating peptides (TRAPs), corresponding to the N-terminus residue unmasked, reproduce several thrombin cellular effects, but are devoid of catalytic activity. We have evaluated the bronchial response to intravenous administration of human alpha-thrombin or a thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP-9) in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated guinea-pigs. 2. Intravenous injection of thrombin (100 microkg(-1)) caused bronchoconstriction that was recapitulated by injection of TRAP-9 (1 mg kg(-1)). Animal pretreatment with the thrombin inhibitor Hirulog (10 mg kg(-1) i.v.) prevented thrombin-induced bronchoconstriction, but did not affect bronchoconstriction induced by TRAP-9. Both agents did not induce bronchoconstriction when injected intravenously to rats. 3. The bronchoconstrictor effect of thrombin and TRAP-9 was subjected to tolerance; however, in animals desensitized to thrombin effect, TRAP-9 was still capable of inducing bronchoconstriction, but not vice versa. 4. Depleting animals of circulating platelets prevented bronchoconstriction induced by both thrombin and TRAP-9. 5. Bronchoconstriction was paralleled by a biphasic change in arterial blood pressure, characterized by a hypotensive phase followed by a hypertensive phase. Thrombin-induced hypotension was not subject to tolerance and was inhibited by Hirulog; conversely, hypertension was subject to tolerance and was not inhibited by Hirulog. Hypotension and hypertension induced by TRAP-9 were neither subject to tolerance nor inhibited by Hirulog. 6. Our results indicate that thrombin causes bronchoconstriction in guinea-pigs through a mechanism that requires proteolytic activation of its receptor and the exposure of the tethered ligand peptide. Platelet activation might be triggered by the thrombin effect. (+info)
(3/2217) Primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty performed for acute myocardial infarction in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
A 72-year-old female with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) complained of severe chest pain. Electrocardiography showed ST-segment depression and negative T wave in I, aVL and V4-6. Following a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), urgent coronary angiography revealed 99% organic stenosis with delayed flow in the proximal segment and 50% in the middle segment of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Subsequently, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for the stenosis in the proximal LAD was performed. In the coronary care unit, her blood pressure dropped. Hematomas around the puncture sites were observed and the platelet count was 28,000/mm3. After transfusion, electrocardiography revealed ST-segment elevation in I, aVL and V1-6. Urgent recatheterization disclosed total occlusion in the middle segment of the LAD. Subsequently, PTCA was performed successfully. Then, intravenous immunoglobulin increased the platelet count and the bleeding tendency disappeared. A case of AMI with ITP is rare. The present case suggests that primary PTCA can be a useful therapeutic strategy, but careful attention must be paid to hemostasis and to managing the platelet count. (+info)
(4/2217) Antithrombotic efficacy of thrombin inhibitor L-374,087: intravenous activity in a primate model of venous thrombus extension and oral activity in a canine model of primary venous and coronary artery thrombosis.
The small molecule direct thrombin inhibitor L-374,087 was characterized across species in an in vitro activated partial thromboplastin clotting time (aPTT) assay and in vivo in rhesus monkey and dog thrombosis models. In vitro in rhesus, dog, and human plasma, L-374,087 concentrations eliciting 2-fold increases in aPTT were 0.25, 1.9, and 0.28 microM, respectively. In anesthetized rhesus monkeys, 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 12 microgram/kg/min and 300 microgram/kg bolus plus 30 microgram/kg/min L-374,087 i.v. infusions significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus extension, with both regimens limiting venous thrombus extension to 2-fold that of baseline thrombus mass compared with a 5-fold extension observed in the vehicle control group. Antithrombotic efficacy in the rhesus with the lower-dose regimen was achieved with 2.3- to 2.4-fold increases in aPTT and prothrombin time. In a conscious instrumented dog model of electrolytic vessel injury, the oral administration of two 10 mg/kg L-374,087 doses 12 h apart significantly reduced jugular vein thrombus mass, reduced the incidence of and delayed time to occlusive coronary artery thrombosis, and significantly reduced coronary artery thrombus mass and ensuing posterolateral myocardial infarct size. Antithrombotic efficacy in the dog was achieved with 1.6- to 2.0-fold increases in aPTT at 1 to 6 h after oral dosing with L-374,087. These results indicate significant antithrombotic efficacy against both venous and coronary arterial thrombosis with L-374,087 with only moderate elevations in aPTT or prothrombin time. The oral efficacy of L-374,087 characterizes this compound as a prototype for the further development of orally active direct thrombin inhibitors. (+info)
(5/2217) Prospective randomized multicenter study comparing cyclosporin alone versus the combination of antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporin for treatment of patients with nonsevere aplastic anemia: a report from the European Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT) Severe Aplastic Anaemia Working Party.
We report the results of the first prospective randomized multicenter study of immunosuppressive treatment in patients with previously untreated nonsevere aplastic anemia (AA) as defined by a neutrophil count of at least 0.5 x 10(9)/L and transfusion dependence. Patients were randomized to receive cyclosporin (CSA) alone or the combination of horse antithymocyte globulin ([ATG] Lymphoglobuline; Merieux, Lyon, France) and CSA. The endpoint of the study was the hematologic response at 6 months. One hundred fifteen patients were randomized and assessable with a median follow-up period of 36 months; 61 received CSA and 54 ATG and CSA. In the CSA group, the percentage of complete and partial responders was 23% and 23%, respectively, for an overall response rate of 46%. A significantly higher overall response rate of 74% was found in the ATG and CSA group, with 57% complete and 17% partial responders (P =. 02). Compared with CSA alone, the combination of ATG and CSA resulted in a significantly higher median hemoglobin level and platelet count at 6 months. Fewer patients required a second course of treatment before 6 months due to a nonresponse. In the CSA group, 15 of 61 (25%) patients required a course of ATG before 6 months because of disease progression, compared with only 3 of 54 (6%) in the ATG and CSA group. The survival probabilities for the two groups were comparable, 93% (CSA group) and 91% (ATG and CSA group), but at 180 days, the prevalence of patients surviving free of transfusions, which excluded patients requiring second treatment because of nonresponse, death, disease progression, or relapse, was 67% in the CSA group and 90% in the ATG and CSA group (P =.001). We conclude that the combination of ATG and CSA is superior to CSA alone in terms of the hematologic response, the quality of response, and early mortality, and a second course of immunosuppression is less frequently required. (+info)
(6/2217) Thrombopoietin: its role from early hematopoiesis to platelet production.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Thrombopoietin (TPO), also referred to as MpI ligand, is the most potent cytokine that physiologically regulates platelet production. With the availability of sufficient amounts of recombinant forms of the protein, the biological in vitro and in vivo activities of this cytokine have been extensively studied. The objective of this review is to summarize the published data focusing on TPO production and regulation and to discuss the pleiotropic biological action of this hormone. The review also highlights the results so far obtained in preclinical and clinical trials. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: The material examined in this review includes data published by the author and articles or abstracts published in Journals covered by Medline. The author has contributed to the isolation of TPO, has been working in the field for several years and has contributed original papers on the TPO/MpI system in normal and pathologic situations. STATE OF THE ART: TPO is a hormone constitutively produced by the liver and kidneys. Plasma levels of TPO are regulated through receptor-mediated uptake, internalization and catabolism. First thought to be a lineage dominant factor promoting megakaryocytopoiesis, several lines of evidence indicate that TPO has pleiotropic effects on hematopoiesis. In vitro studies show that TPO alone, or in combination with early acting cytokines, stimulates the proliferation and enhances the expansion of primitive CD34+ CD38- hematopoietic progenitor cells. In vivo studies with c-mpl- and TPO-null mice reveal that the molecule sustains the survival and proliferation of early committed progenitor cells of various type. Preclinical and clinical trials indicate that recombinant TPO molecules increase platelet counts and megakaryocyte numbers in normal or mildly thrombocytopenic states. However, no significant effects of TPO administration on platelet recovery have so far been reported in patients subjected to intensive chemotherapy regimens. Recombinant molecules appear to be safe to administer and very little toxicity is reported. TPO augments the number of erythroid and myeloid committed progenitor cells in marrow, and mobilized stem cells in peripheral blood. PERSPECTIVES: The potential clinical use of TPO is still unclear. With the increased knowledge of the multiple effects of TPO on hematopoiesis, it is expected that future carefully monitored clinical trials will provide more information regarding the eventual benefits of this cytokine in the treatment of thrombocytopenia. At present, one successful application of TPO appears to be its addition in cytokine cocktails used to expand hematopoietic stem cells ex vivo. (+info)
(7/2217) Patients with thrombocytosis have normal or slightly elevated thrombopoietin levels.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The distinction between clonal and reactive thrombocytoses is a frequent problem and implies different therapeutic options. As thrombopoietin (TPO) is the main regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis, we measured TPO levels in patients with thrombocytosis in an attempt to understand the regulation and potential utility of distinguishing thrombocytoses. DESIGN AND METHODS: Serum TPO levels, platelet counts, mean platelet volume, hemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and age were evaluated in 25 patients with clonal thrombocytosis (15 with essential thrombocythemia, 6 with polycythemia vera and 4 with chronic myeloid leukemia) and in 50 patients with reactive thrombocytosis distributed in three groups: 1) patients in post-surgical states; 2) patients with solid tumors; and 3) patients with inflammatory diseases. RESULTS: TPO levels were slightly increased in patients with clonal (135+/-50 pg/mL) and reactive (147+/-58 pg/mL) thrombocytosis compared with controls (121+/-58 pg/mL). Analyzing the different groups, patients with essential thrombocythemia had the lowest TPO levels (120+/-28 pg/mL) and patients with solid tumors the highest levels (162+/-59 pg/mL). Patients with clonal thrombocytosis were older, had higher platelet counts, mean platelet volume and hemoglobin, and lower erythrocyte sedimentation rate than patients with reactive thrombocytosis. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Minor differences were observed in TPO levels between patients with primary and secondary thrombocytoses. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, but not TPO levels, may be a useful tool for discriminating both types of thrombocytoses. (+info)
(8/2217) Neutrophil activation and hemostatic changes in healthy donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances neutrophil functions in vitro and in vivo. It is known that neutrophil-derived products can alter the hemostatic balance. To understand whether polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activation, measured as PMN degranulation and phenotypical change, may be associated to hemostatic alterations in vivo, we have studied the effect of recombinant human G-CSF (rHuG-CSF) administration on leukocyte parameters and hemostatic variables in healthy donors of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Twenty-six consecutive healthy donors receiving 10 micrograms/kg/d rHuG-CSF subcutaneously for 5 to 7 days to mobilize HPCs for allogeneic transplants were included in the study. All of them responded to rHuG-CSF with a significant white blood cell count increase. Blood samples were drawn before therapy on days 2 and 5 and 1 week after stopping rHuG-CSF treatment. The following parameters were evaluated: (1) PMN activation parameters, ie, surface CD11b/CD18 antigen expression, plasma elastase antigen levels and cellular elastase activity; (2) plasma markers of endothelium activation, ie, thrombomodulin (TM) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigens; (3) plasma markers of blood coagulation activation, ie, F1+2, TAT complex, D-dimer; and (4) mononuclear cell (MNC) procoagulant activity (PCA) expression. The results show that, after starting rHuG-CSF, an in vivo PMN activation occurred, as demonstrated by the significant increment of surface CD11b/CD18 and plasma elastase antigen levels. Moreover, PMN cellular elastase activity, which was significantly increased at 1 day of treatment, returned to baseline at day 5 to 6, in correspondence with the elastase antigen peak in the circulation. This change was accompanied by a parallel significant increase in plasma levels of the two endothelial and the three coagulation markers. The PCA generated in vitro by unstimulated MNC isolated from rHuG-CSF-treated subjects was not different from that of control cells from untreated subjects. However, endotoxin-stimulated MNC isolated from on-treatment individuals produced significantly more PCA compared with both baseline and control samples. All of the parameters were decreased or normal 1 week after stopping treatment. These data show that rHuG-CSF induces PMN activation and transiently affects some hemostatic variables in healthy HPC donor subjects. The clinical significance of these findings remains to be established. (+info)