Increased platelet activation in the chronic phase after cerebral ischemia and intracerebral hemorrhage.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Enhanced thromboxane (TX) biosynthesis has previously been reported in the acute phase after ischemic stroke. We investigated whether enhanced urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-TXB2, a noninvasive index of platelet activation, was present in the chronic phase after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage. METHODS: We obtained a single urinary sample from 92 patients between 3 and 9 months after onset of stroke or TIA. The urinary excretion of the major enzymatic metabolite of TXA2, 11-dehydro-TXB2, was measured by a previously validated radioimmunoassay. The excretion rates were compared with those of 20 control patients with nonvascular neurological diseases. RESULTS: Urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 averaged 294+/-139, 413+/-419, and 557+/-432 pmol/mmol creatinine for patients with TIA, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage, respectively; the values were higher in all subgroups (P<0.01) than that in control patients (119+/-66 pmol/mmol). Increased 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion was present in 59% of all patients, in 60% (P<0.001) of patients with TIA, in 56% (P<0.001) of patients with ischemic stroke, and in 73% (P<0.001) of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. Atrial fibrillation, no aspirin use, and severity of symptoms at follow-up contributed independently to the level of 11-dehydro-TXB2 excretion in a multiple linear regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Platelet activation is often present in patients in the chronic phase after stroke, including those with intracerebral hemorrhage. Persistent platelet activation, which is associated with atrial fibrillation and poor stroke outcome, can be substantially suppressed by aspirin treatment. (+info
Increased serotonin receptor density and platelet GPIIb/IIIa activation among smokers.
This study sought to determine whether depressive symptoms and/or platelet serotonin receptor (5HT2A) density are associated with increased platelet activation (PA) found among smokers. Flow cytometric detection of PA was used to study 36 smokers and 16 nonsmokers, aged 18 to 48 years. Subjects were tested at baseline and after either smoking 2 cigarettes (smokers) or a similar resting interval (nonsmokers). Assessment of PA included both platelet secretion and fibrinogen receptor (GPIIb/IIIa) binding. Platelet 5HT2A receptor binding and saturation were tested using [3H]LSD, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Platelet 5HT2A receptor density was increased among smokers versus nonsmokers (82.7+/-67.7 versus 40.0+/-20.2 fmol/mg protein; P<0.005), and there was a dose-dependent relationship between receptor density and packs/d among smokers. Baseline wound-induced GPIIb/IIIa binding at 1 minute and GPIIb/IIIa binding in response to collagen stimulation in vitro was increased among smokers (P<0.05); there were no changes in PA among smokers after smoking, and platelet secretion was not elevated among smokers. Depressive symptoms were associated with 5HT2A receptor density among nonsmokers (P<0.005), but no such relationship was evident among smokers; PA was unrelated to 5HT2A receptor density in either group. The findings indicate that smoking is associated with increased platelet serotonin receptor density and with increased GPIIb/IIIa receptor binding, although these 2 factors are not related to each other or to depressive symptoms among smokers. Serotonergic dysfunction may be an important factor in the development of cardiovascular disease among smokers. (+info
Protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 mediate activation of human platelets by thrombin.
Because of the role of thrombin and platelets in myocardial infarction and other pathological processes, identifying and blocking the receptors by which thrombin activates platelets has been an important goal. Three protease-activated receptors (PARs) for thrombin -- PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 -- are now known. PAR1 functions in human platelets, and the recent observation that a PAR4-activating peptide activates human platelets suggests that PAR4 also acts in these cells. Whether PAR1 and PAR4 account for activation of human platelets by thrombin, or whether PAR3 or still other receptors contribute, is unknown. We have examined the roles of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 in platelets. PAR1 and PAR4 mRNA and protein were detected in human platelets. Activation of either receptor was sufficient to trigger platelet secretion and aggregation. Inhibition of PAR1 alone by antagonist, blocking antibody, or desensitization blocked platelet activation by 1 nM thrombin but only modestly attenuated platelet activation by 30 nM thrombin. Inhibition of PAR4 alone using a blocking antibody had little effect at either thrombin concentration. Strikingly, simultaneous inhibition of both PAR1 and PAR4 virtually ablated platelet secretion and aggregation, even at 30 nM thrombin. These observations suggest that PAR1 and PAR4 account for most, if not all, thrombin signaling in platelets and that antagonists that block these receptors might be useful antithrombotic agents. (+info
Podocalyxin in rat platelets and megakaryocytes.
Podocalyxin is a membrane protein of rat podocytes and endothelial cells. It has not been described in other cell types, and no amino acid or DNA sequence data are available about it. Here we show that podocalyxin antigens are present in rat platelets and megakaryocytes. In resting platelets, the antigens are mainly intracellular but become surface exposed after thrombin stimulation, as shown by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. By Western blotting, platelet podocalyxin has an apparent Mr of 140,000. Cytocentrifuge slides of rat bone marrow show that anti-podocalyxin antibodies recognize large polyploid cells also expressing CD62P, indicating that the cells are megakaryocytes. From a rat glomerular cDNA library we isolated a clone covering the carboxyl-terminal nucleotides of rat podocalyxin. Its putative transmembrane or intracellular domains are 100% or >93% identical, respectively, with the human and rabbit podocalyxin-like proteins. The truncated extracellular domain extends to include two of the four conserved cysteines shared by podocalyxin-like proteins. By Northern blotting, a 5.5-kb renal cortical transcript is seen. By in situ hybridization, cRNA probes recognize podocytes, endothelial cells, and megakaryocytes, and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, platelets are shown to contain podocalyxin mRNA. Our results show that rat podocalyxin is a homologue of the previously cloned podocalyxin-like proteins and suggest that also in mammals podocalyxin has a role in hematopoiesis, as previously shown in the chicken. (+info
Platelet activation in patients after an acute coronary syndrome: results from the TIMI-12 trial. Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction.
This study was designed to determine the magnitude and time course of platelet activation during therapy of acute coronary syndromes with an oral platelet antagonist. BACKGROUND: Platelet activation and aggregation are central to the pathogenesis of the acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, few data are available on levels of platelet activation over time in patients with ACS, especially in the setting of chronic glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibition. METHODS: The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 12 trial was a phase II, double-blind trial evaluating the effects of sibrafiban, an oral, selective antagonist of the platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor in patients stabilized after an ACS. A subset of 90 of the 329 patients in the study had measurement of platelet activation as assessed by the expression of platelet associated P-Selectin on days 0, 7 and 28. Platelet activation was measured in blood samples that were fixed either immediately (spontaneous activation) or after 5 minute incubation with 0, 1 microM or 5 microM ADP in order to assess platelet responsiveness to very low or moderate stimulation. RESULTS: At baseline there was a significant elevation of spontaneous platelet activation as compared to samples obtained from normal donors or from patients who did not have acute coronary syndromes (ACS patients 27.6+/-18.7%, Normal controls 8.5+/-4.4%, Patient controls 10.9+/-7.1%, p < 0.005 for both). In addition, there was a significant decrease in the levels of platelet activation with time during the 28 days of treatment with sibrafiban. Nevertheless, even on day 28, the TIMI-12 patients continued to show elevated platelet activation in comparison to the control groups (p < 0.05 for both). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that platelets remain activated long after clinical stabilization post ACS. Although platelet activation decreased after one month of oral GPIIb/IIIa inhibition, levels remained higher than normal, suggesting the need for long-term antiplatelet therapy following ACS. (+info
Role of autocrine stimulation on the effects of cyclic AMP on protein and lipid phosphorylation in collagen-activated and thrombin-activated platelets.
We compared several responses in thrombin-stimulated and collagen (type I)-stimulated platelets with and without forskolin and inhibitors of autocrine stimulation (IAS: an ADP-removing system of creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide to prevent fibrinogen/fibronectin binding to GPIIb/IIIa, SQ 29.548 as a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, cyproheptadine as a serotonin receptor antagonist, BN 52021 as a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist). The pattern of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, the phosphorylation of lipids in the polyphosphoinositide cycle and phosphorylation of pleckstrin (P47) were studied as markers for signal-transducing responses, exposure of CD62 (P-selectin) and CD63 (Glycoprotein 53), as well as secretion of ADP + ATP and beta-N-acetyl-glycosaminidase were studied as final activation responses. Clear differences between thrombin-stimulated and collagen-stimulated platelets were observed. First, practically all protein-tyrosine phosphorylation induced by thrombin was inhibited by IAS, while a partial inhibition was observed for collagen; the phosphorylation due to collagen alone was apparently stimulated by elevation of cAMP. Secondly, the other responses to thrombin were inhibited by increased levels of cAMP, independent of autocrine stimulation. In contrast, only the autocrine part of the collagen-induced responses was inhibited by elevation of cAMP. Thus, the inhibition by elevated cAMP seen in collagen-stimulated platelets seems to be due to removal of the G-protein-mediated activation from secreted autocrine stimulators either by IAS or forskolin. The remaining activity is a pure collagen effect which is not affected by elevated levels of cAMP. (+info
Inflammation, sepsis, and coagulation.
The molecular links between inflammation and coagulation are unquestioned. Inflammation promotes coagulation by leading to intravascular tissue factor expression, eliciting the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules on the intravascular cell surfaces, and down regulating the fibrinolytic and protein C anticoagulant pathways. Thrombin, in turn, can promote inflammatory responses. This creates a cycle that logically progresses to vascular injury as occurs in septic shock. Most complex systems are regulated by product inhibition. This inflammation-coagulation cycle seems to follow this same principle with the protein C pathway serving as the regulatory mechanism. The molecular basis by which the protein C pathway functions as an anticoagulant is relatively well established compared to the mechanisms involved in regulating inflammation. As one approach to identifying the mechanisms involved in regulating inflammation, we set out to identify novel receptors that could modulate the specificity of APC in a manner analogous to the mechanisms by which thrombomodulin modulates thrombin specificity. This approach led to the identification of an endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR). To understand the mechanism, we obtained a crystal structure of APC (lacking the Gla domain). The crystal structure reveals a deep groove in a location analogous to anion binding exosite 1 of thrombin, the location of interaction for thrombomodulin, platelet thrombin receptor and fibrinogen. Thrombomodulin blocks the activation of platelets and fibrinogen without blocking reactivity with chromogenic substrates or inhibitors. Similarly, in solution, EPCR blocks factor Va inactivation without modulating reactivity with protease inhibitors. Thus, these endothelial cell receptors for the protein C system share many properties in common including the ability to be modulated by inflammatory cytokines. Current studies seek to identify the substrate for the APC-EPCR complex as the next step in elucidating the mechanisms by which the protein C pathway modulates the response to injury and inflammation. (+info
Human platelets contain SNARE proteins and a Sec1p homologue that interacts with syntaxin 4 and is phosphorylated after thrombin activation: implications for platelet secretion.
In response to thrombin and other extracellular activators, platelets secrete molecules from large intracellular vesicles (granules) to initiate thrombosis. Little is known about the molecular machinery responsible for vesicle docking and secretion in platelets and the linkage of that machinery to cell activation. We found that platelet membranes contain a full complement of interacting proteins-VAMP, SNAP-25, and syntaxin 4-that are necessary for vesicle docking and fusion with the plasma membrane. Platelets also contain an uncharacterized homologue of the Sec1p family that appears to regulate vesicle docking through its binding with a cognate syntaxin. This platelet Sec1 protein (PSP) bound to syntaxin 4 and thereby excluded the binding of SNAP-25 with syntaxin 4, an interaction critical to vesicle docking. As predicted by its sequence, PSP was detected predominantly in the platelet cytosol and was phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC), a secretion-linked kinase, incorporating 0.87 +/- 0.11 mol of PO4 per mole of protein. PSP was also specifically phosphorylated in permeabilized platelets after cellular stimulation by phorbol esters or thrombin and this phosphorylation was blocked by the PKC inhibitor Ro-31-8220. Phosphorylation by PKC in vitro inhibited PSP from binding to syntaxin 4. Taken together, these studies indicate that platelets, like neurons and other cells capable of regulated secretion, contain a unique complement of interacting vesicle docking proteins and PSP, a putative regulator of vesicle docking. The PKC-dependent phosphorylation of PSP in activated platelets and its inhibitory effects on syntaxin 4 binding provide a novel functional link that may be important in coupling the processes of cell activation, intracellular signaling, and secretion. (+info