(1/252) Balanced regulation of expression of the gene for cytochrome cM and that of genes for plastocyanin and cytochrome c6 in Synechocystis.
The cytM gene for cytochrome cM was previously found in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Northern blotting analysis revealed that the cytM gene was scarcely expressed under normal growth conditions but its expression was enhanced when cells were exposed to low temperature or high-intensity light. By contrast, the expression of the genes for cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin was suppressed at low temperature or under high-intensity light. These observations suggest that plastocyanin and/or cytochrome c6, which are dominant under non-stressed conditions, are replaced by cytochrome cM under the stress conditions. (+info)
(2/252) The structure and unusual pH dependence of plastocyanin from the fern Dryopteris crassirhizoma. The protonation of an active site histidine is hindered by pi-pi interactions.
Spectroscopic properties, amino acid sequence, electron transfer kinetics, and crystal structures of the oxidized (at 1.7 A resolution) and reduced form (at 1.8 A resolution) of a novel plastocyanin from the fern Dryopteris crassirhizoma are presented. Kinetic studies show that the reduced form of Dryopteris plastocyanin remains redox-active at low pH, under conditions where the oxidation of the reduced form of other plastocyanins is inhibited by the protonation of a solvent-exposed active site residue, His87 (equivalent to His90 in Dryopteris plastocyanin). The x-ray crystal structure analysis of Dryopteris plastocyanin reveals pi-pi stacking between Phe12 and His90, suggesting that the active site is uniquely protected against inactivation. Like higher plant plastocyanins, Dryopteris plastocyanin has an acidic patch, but this patch is located closer to the solvent-exposed active site His residue, and the total number of acidic residues is smaller. In the reactions of Dryopteris plastocyanin with inorganic redox reagents, the acidic patch (the "remote" site) and the hydrophobic patch surrounding His90 (the "adjacent" site) are equally efficient for electron transfer. These results indicate the significance of the lack of protonation at the active site of Dryopteris plastocyanin, the equivalence of the two electron transfer sites in this protein, and a possibility of obtaining a novel insight into the photosynthetic electron transfer system of the first vascular plant fern, including its molecular evolutionary aspects. This is the first report on the characterization of plastocyanin and the first three-dimensional protein structure from fern plant. (+info)
(3/252) Crystal structures of wild-type and mutant plastocyanins from a higher plant, Silene.
Plastocyanin functions as an electron carrier between the cytochrome b6f complex and photosystem I. The crystal structures of the wild-type and E43K/D44K double mutant from the higher plant, Silene, have been determined at 2.0 and 1.75 A resolution, respectively. The wild-type plastocyanin comprises two monomers per asymmetric unit, one of which shows the unusually great distance between the copper ion and the Ndelta1 atom of H87 because of the hydrogen bond network formation between H87 and symmetry-related G10. The root mean square deviation for Ca atoms between the wild-type and mutant plastocyanins is 0.44 A, however, the electrostatic potential maps of their molecular surfaces are remarkably different. The low electron-transfer rate in the E43K/D44K mutant results from the hindrance of electrostatic interactions, not from the structural change due to the mutation. (+info)
(4/252) Site-directed mutagenesis of cytochrome c6 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The heme protein possesses a negatively charged area that may be isofunctional with the acidic patch of plastocyanin.
This paper reports the first site-directed mutagenesis analysis of any cytochrome c6, a heme protein that performs the same function as the copper-protein plastocyanin in the electron transport chain of photosynthetic organisms. Photosystem I reduction by the mutants of cytochrome c6 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been studied by laser flash absorption spectroscopy. Their kinetic efficiency and thermodynamic properties have been compared with those of plastocyanin mutants from the same organism. Such a comparative study reveals that aspartates at positions 70 and 72 in cytochrome c6 are located in an acidic patch that may be isofunctional with the well known "south-east" patch of plastocyanin. Calculations of surface electrostatic potential distribution in the mutants of cytochrome c6 and plastocyanin indicate that the changes in protein reactivity depend on the surface electrostatic potential pattern rather than on the net charge modification induced by mutagenesis. Phe-64, which is close to the heme group and may be the counterpart of Tyr-83 in plastocyanin, does not appear to be involved in the electron transfer to photosystem I. In contrast, Arg-67, which is at the edge of the cytochrome c6 acidic area, seems to be crucial for the interaction with the reaction center. (+info)
(5/252) Lipid composition determines the effects of arbutin on the stability of membranes.
Arbutin (hydroquinone-beta-D-glucopyranoside) is an abundant solute in the leaves of many freezing- or desiccation-tolerant plants. Its physiological role in plants, however, is not known. Here we show that arbutin protects isolated spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) thylakoid membranes from freeze-thaw damage. During freezing of liposomes, the presence of only 20 mM arbutin led to complete leakage of a soluble marker from egg PC (EPC) liposomes. When the nonbilayer-forming chloroplast lipid monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) was included in the membranes, this leakage was prevented. Inclusion of more than 15% MGDG into the membranes led to a strong destabilization of liposomes during freezing. Under these conditions arbutin became a cryoprotectant, as only 5 mM arbutin reduced leakage from 75% to 20%. The nonbilayer lipid egg phosphatidylethanolamine (EPE) had an effect similar to that of MGDG, but was much less effective, even at concentrations up to 80% in EPC membranes. Arbutin-induced leakage during freezing was accompanied by massive bilayer fusion in EPC and EPC/EPE membranes. Twenty percent MGDG in EPC bilayers completely inhibited the fusogenic effect of arbutin. The membrane surface probes merocyanine 540 and 2-(6-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1, 3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoyl-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosph ocholi ne (NBD-C(6)-HPC) revealed that arbutin reduced the ability of both probes to partition into the membranes. Steady-state anisotropy measurements with probes that localize at different positions in the membranes showed that headgroup mobility was increased in the presence of arbutin, whereas the mobility of the fatty acyl chains close to the glycerol backbone was reduced. This reduction, however, was not seen in membranes containing 20% MGDG. The effect of arbutin on lipid order was limited to the interfacial region of the membranes and was not evident in the hydrophobic core region. From these data we were able to derive a physical model of the perturbing or nonperturbing interactions of arbutin with lipid bilayers. (+info)
(6/252) Accumulation of pre-apocytochrome f in a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 mutant impaired in cytochrome c maturation.
Cytochrome c maturation involves heme transport and covalent attachment of heme to the apoprotein. The 5' end of the ccsB gene, which is involved in the maturation process and resembles the ccs1 gene from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was replaced by a chloramphenicol resistance cartridge in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The resulting Delta(M1-A24) mutant lacking the first 24 ccsB codons grew only under anaerobic conditions. The mutant retained about 20% of the wild-type amount of processed cytochrome f with heme attached, apparently assembled in a functional cytochrome b(6)f complex. Moreover, the mutant accumulated unprocessed apocytochrome f in its membrane fraction. A pseudorevertant was isolated that regained the ability to grow under aerobic conditions. The locus of the second-site mutation was mapped to ccsB, and the mutation resulted in the formation of a new potential start codon in the intergenic region, between the chloramphenicol resistance marker and ccsB, in frame with the remaining part of ccsB. In this pseudorevertant the amount of holocyt f increased, whereas that of unprocessed apocytochrome f decreased. We suggest that the original deletion mutant Delta(M1-A24) expresses an N-terminally truncated version of the protein. The stable accumulation of unprocessed apocytochrome f in membranes of the Delta(M1-A24) mutant may be explained by its association with truncated and only partially functional CcsB protein resulting in protection from degradation. Our attempt to delete the first 244 codons of ccsB in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was not successful, suggesting that this would lead to a lack of functional cytochrome b(6)f complex. The results suggest that the CcsB protein is an apocytochrome chaperone, which together with CcsA may constitute part of cytochrome c lyase. (+info)
(7/252) Electron transfers amongst cytochrome f, plastocyanin and photosystem I: kinetics and mechanisms.
The review covers the theory and practice of the determination of kinetic constants for the electron transfer reactions in chloroplast thylakoid membranes between plastocyanin and cytochrome f in cytochrome bf complexes, and between plastocyanin and the reaction centre of photosystem I. Effects of ionic strength and pH are featured. The contribution of mutant studies is included. It is concluded that nearly all data from in vitro experiments can be interpreted with a reaction scheme in which an encounter complex between donor and acceptor is formed by long-range electrostatic attraction, followed by rearrangement during which metal centres become close enough for rapid intra-complex electron transfer. In vivo experiments so far cast doubt on this particular sequence, but their interpretation is not straightforward. Means of modelling the bimolecular complex between cytochrome f and plastocyanin are outlined, and two likely structures are illustrated. The complex formed by plastocyanin and photosystem I in higher plants involves the PsaF subunit, but its structure has not been fully determined. (+info)
(8/252) Redox- and pH-dependent association of plastocyanin with lipid bilayers: effect on protein conformation and thermal stability.
The effect of electrostatic interactions on the conformation and thermal stability of plastocyanin (Pc) was studied by infrared spectroscopy. Association of any of the two redox states of the protein with positively charged membranes at neutral pH does not significantly change the secondary structure of Pc. However, upon membrane binding, the denaturation temperature decreases, regardless of the protein redox state. The extent of destabilization depends on the proportion of positively charged lipid headgroups in the membrane, becoming greater as the surface density of basic phospholipids increases. In contrast, at pH 4.8 the membrane binding-dependent conformational change becomes redox-sensitive. While the secondary structures and thermal stabilities of free and membrane-bound oxidized Pc are similar under acidic conditions, the conformation of the reduced form of the protein drastically rearranges upon membrane association. This rearrangement does not depend on electrostatic interactions to occur, since it is also observed in the presence of uncharged lipid bilayers. The conformational transition, only observed for reduced Pc, involves the exposure of hydrophobic regions that leads to intermolecular interactions at the membrane surface. Membrane-mediated partial unfolding of reduced Pc can be reversed by readjusting the pH to neutrality, in the absence of electrostatic interactions. This redox-dependent behavior might reflect specific structural requirements for the interaction of Pc with its redox partners. (+info)