Effect of locoweed (Astragalus ientiginosus) feeding of fetal lamb development.
Locoweed, Astragalus lentiginosus, was fed to pregnant ewes for various periods during gestation. The principal gross effects on the developing fetuses were observed to be delayed placentation, decreased vascularization, fetal edema and hemorrhage, and alteration of cotyledon development. Deformed lambs and undersized lambs also occurred. Data from sheep fed locoweed during various periods of the entire gestation period are summarized and indicate that locoweed poisoning in the fetus as with the adult is a chronic type of intoxication. Also, poisoning of the fetus parallels poisoning in the dam. (+info)
A lysosomal storage disease induced by Ipomoea carnea in goats in Mozambique.
A novel plant-induced lysosomal storage disease was observed in goats from a village in Mozambique. Affected animals were ataxic, with head tremors and nystagmus. Because of a lack of suitable feed, the animals consumed an exotic hedge plant growing in the village that was identified as Ipomoea carnea (shrubby morning glory, Convolvulaceae). The toxicosis was reproduced by feeding I. carnea plant material to goats. In acute cases, histologic changes in the brain and spinal cord comprised widespread cytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons and glial cells in association with axonal spheroid formation. Ultrastructurally, cytoplasmic storage vacuoles in neurons were membrane bound and consistent with lysosomes. Cytoplasmic vacuolation was also found in neurons in the submucosal and mesenteric plexuses in the small intestine, in renal tubular epithelial cells, and in macrophage-phagocytic cells in the spleen and lymph nodes in acute cases. Residual alterations in the brain in chronic cases revealed predominantly cerebellar lesions characterized by loss of Purkinje neurons and gliosis of the Purkinje cell layer. Analysis of I. carnea plant material by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry established the presence of the mannosidase inhibitor swainsonine and 2 glycosidase inhibitors, calystegine B2 and calystegine C1, consistent with a plant-induced alpha-mannosidosis in the goats. The described storage disorder is analogous to the lysosomal storage diseases induced by ingestion of locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis) and poison peas (Swainsona). (+info)
Lysosomal storage disease caused by Sida carpinifolia poisoning in goats.
A neurologic disease characterized by ataxia, hypermetria, hyperesthesia, and muscle tremors of the head and neck was observed for 2 years in a flock of 28 Anglo-Nubian and Saanen goats on a farm with 5 ha of pasture. Six newborns died during the first week of life, and five abortions were recorded. The predominant plant in the pasture was Sida carpinifolia. The disease was reproduced experimentally in two goats by administration of this plant. Three goats with spontaneous disease and the two experimental animals were euthanatized and necropsied. No significant gross lesions were observed. Fragments of several organs, including the central nervous system, were processed for histopathology. Small fragments of the cerebellar cortex, liver, and pancreas of two spontaneously poisoned goats and two experimentally poisoned goats were processed for electron microscopy. Multiple cytoplasm vacuoles in hepatocytes, acinar pancreatic cells, and neurons, especially Purkinje cells, were the most striking microscopic lesions in the five animals. Ultrastructural changes included membrane-bound vacuoles in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, acinar pancreatic cells, Purkinje cells, and the small neurons of the granular cell layer of the cerebellum. Paraffin-embedded sections of the cerebellum and pancreas were submitted for lectin histochemical analysis. The vacuoles in different cerebellar and acinar pancreatic cells reacted strongly to the following lectins: Concanavalia ensiformis, Triticum vulgaris, and succinylated Triticum vulgaris. The pattern of staining, analyzed in Purkinje cells and acinar pancreatic cells coincides with results reported for both swainsonine toxicosis and inherited mannosidosis. (+info)
Suspected citrus pulp toxicosis in dairy cattle.
Thirteen lactating dairy cows from a herd of 650 died over a 6-week period. Most animals were down in milk production at 1 milking and were found dead at the next milking. Two cows had elevated heart rate and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Two others had azotemia, elevated heart rate, hyperglycemia, and weight loss. Necropsy of 10 cows revealed hemorrhages on the intestinal serosa and epicardium, lymphadenopathy, interstitial nephritis, small intestinal hemorrhage, and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology showed lymphocytic to lymphogranulomatous inflammation in the heart, spleen, kidney, lymph nodes, liver, lung, pancreas, and adrenal gland. Phlebitis was present in 2 livers. The lesions resembled those of hairy vetch toxicosis, but no vetch was being fed. Similar lesions have been reported with the feeding of citrus pulp. Citrus pulp was being fed to the lactating cows and had been added to the diet 6 weeks before the first death. The syndrome resolved with elimination of citrus pulp from the diet. (+info)
Detection of endophyte toxins in the imported perennial ryegrass straw.
From 1997 to 1999, 29 cases of disorders were detected in cattle and horses that had been fed ryegrass straw imported from the U.S.A. These animals showed symptoms resembling ryegrass staggers and the clinical signs disappeared after removal of the straw. Endophytic hyphae were detected in the seeds of all straw samples that were responsible for the clinical cases. Lolitrem B concentrations in the straw ranged between 972 and 3740 ppb. Ergovaline concentrations were between 355 and 1300 ppb. Even though the concentrations of lolitrem B were lower than the toxic threshold proposed by Oregon State University in better part of the cases, our observations suggest the possibility that lolitrem B lower than the proposed threshold can bring disorders to sensitive individuals. (+info)
Epinephrine induced hyperglycemia in bulls and its relationship to polioencephalomalacia.
Data on blood glucose concentration in bulls affected with molasses associated polioencephalomalacia are controversial. It has been suggested that the brain lesions are related to a "hypoglycemic state" during the development of polioencephalomalacia. This paper reports the mobilization of glucose by means of the epinephrine test in three bulls fed two diets, one forage based and the other molasses based. The results showed significantly greater hyperglycemic responses in the animals during the molasses diet than during the forage one. This probably means that glucose stores (as glycogen) are higher in cattle consuming molasses than those consuming forage. Such hepatic glucose output is in disagreement with the hypoglycemia theory as the cause of the early stages of brain lesions and focuses the probable cause as being related to glucose utilization. (+info)
Conditioning taste aversions to locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) in horses.
Locoweed (Oxytropis sericea) is a serious poisoning problem for horses grazing on infested rangelands in the western United States. Our objectives were to determine 1) whether lithium chloride or apomorphine would condition aversions to palatable foods, and at what doses, and 2) whether horses could be averted to fresh locoweed in a pen and grazing situation. Apomorphine was not an acceptable aversive agent because at the dose required to condition an aversion (> or = 0.17 mg/kg BW), apomorphine induced unacceptable behavioral effects. Lithium chloride given via stomach tube at 190 mg/kg BW conditioned strong and persistent aversions to palatable feeds with minor signs of distress. Pen and grazing tests were conducted in Colorado to determine if horses could be averted to fresh locoweed. Pen tests indicated that most horses (5/6) were completely averted from locoweed. Treated horses ate 34 g of fresh locoweed compared to 135 g for controls (P < 0.01) during three pen tests when offered 150 g per test. One horse (T) in the treatment group ate locoweed each time it was offered in the pen, but ate no locoweed while grazing. In the grazing trial, control horses averaged 8.6% of bites of locoweed (P < 0.01) during the grazing portion of the study, whereas treated horses averaged <0.5%. One treated horse (S) accounted for all consumption; he consumed 15% of his bites as locoweed in a grazing bout on d 2 of the field study. Thereafter, he was dosed a second time with lithium chloride and ate no locoweed in the subsequent 5 d. Three of six horses required two pairings of lithium chloride with fresh locoweed to condition a complete aversion. The results of this study indicate that horses can be averted from locoweed using lithium chloride as an aversive agent, and this may provide a management tool to reduce the risk of intoxication for horses grazing locoweed-infested rangeland. (+info)
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of 4-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) in the serum of patients with ginkgo seed poisoning.
The 4-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) present in the seeds of the Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair tree) has anti-vitamin B6 actions, and ginkgo seed poisoning can induce convulsions. We developed a specific quantitative method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of MPN in human serum. The trifluoroacyl (TFA) derivative of MPN was obtained by treating MPN with trifluoroacetic anhydride at 50 degrees C for 5 min and remained stable for 6 h. The calibration curve of standard MPN obtained in the selective ion mode using the base ion (m/z 343) was linear between 100 pg and 10 ng, and the detection limit was 50 pg. The full mass spectrum of 100 pg of the TFA derivative of MPN was obtained easily. MPN was extracted from the serum with the use of a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. The recovery rate of MPN added to the serum at a concentration of 0.1 microg/mL was 90.0%. (+info)