Changes in Azospirillum brasilense motility and the effect of wheat seedling exudates.
The rhizobacterium Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 swims, swarms (Swa(+) phenotype) or, very rarely, migrates with the formation of granular macrocolonies (Gri(+) phenotype). Our aims were (i) to identify Sp245 mutants that swarm faster than the parent strain or differ from it in the mode of spreading and (ii) to compare the mutants' responses to wheat seedling exudates. In isotropic liquid media, the swimming speeds of all motile A. brasilense strains were not influenced by the exudates. However, the exudates significantly stimulated the swarming of Sp245. In several Sp245 mutants, the superswarming phenotype was insensitive to local colonial density and to the presence of wheat seedling exudates. An A. brasilense polar-flagellum-defective Gri(+) mutant BK759.G gave rise to stable Swa(++) derivatives with restored flagellum production. This transition was concurrent with plasmid rearrangements and was stimulated in the presence of wheat seedling exudates. The swarming rate of the Swa(++) derivatives of BK759.G was affected by the local density of their colonies but not by the presence of the exudates. (+info)
Flavonoids and strigolactones in root exudates as signals in symbiotic and pathogenic plant-fungus interactions.
Secondary plant compounds are important signals in several symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions. The present review is limited to two groups of secondary plant compounds, flavonoids and strigolactones, which have been reported in root exudates. Data on flavonoids as signaling compounds are available from several symbiotic and pathogenic plant-microbe interactions, whereas only recently initial data on the role of strigolactones as plant signals in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis have been reported. Data from other plant-microbe interactions and strigolactones are not available yet. In the present article we are focusing on flavonoids in plant-fungal interactions such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) association and the signaling between different Fusarium species and plants. Moreover the role of strigolactones in the AM association is discussed and new data on the effect of strigolactones on fungi, apart from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), are provided. (+info)
Root exudates regulate soil fungal community composition and diversity.
Plants are in constant contact with a community of soil biota that contains fungi ranging from pathogenic to symbiotic. A few studies have demonstrated a critical role of chemical communication in establishing highly specialized relationships, but the general role for root exudates in structuring the soil fungal community is poorly described. This study demonstrates that two model plant species (Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula) are able to maintain resident soil fungal populations but unable to maintain nonresident soil fungal populations. This is mediated largely through root exudates: the effects of adding in vitro-generated root exudates to the soil fungal community were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the results observed for plants grown in those same soils. This effect is observed for total fungal biomass, phylotype diversity, and overall community similarity to the starting community. Nonresident plants and root exudates influenced the fungal community by both positively and negatively impacting the relative abundance of individual phylotypes. A net increase in fungal biomass was observed when nonresident root exudates were added to resident plant treatments, suggesting that increases in specific carbon substrates and/or signaling compounds support an increased soil fungal population load. This study establishes root exudates as a mechanism through which a plant is able to regulate soil fungal community composition. (+info)
Ogataea chonburiensis sp. nov. and Ogataea nakhonphanomensis sp. nov., thermotolerant, methylotrophic yeast species isolated in Thailand, and transfer of Pichia siamensis and Pichia thermomethanolica to the genus Ogataea.