C-fiber depletion alters response properties of neurons in trigeminal nucleus principalis.
The effects of C-fiber depletion induced by neonatal capsaicin treatment on the functional properties of vibrissa-sensitive low-threshold mechanoreceptive (LTM) neurons in the rat trigeminal nucleus principalis were examined in adult rats. Neonatal rats were injected either with capsaicin or its vehicle within 48 h of birth. The depletion of unmyelinated afferents was confirmed by the significant decrease in plasma extravasation of Evan's blue dye induced in the hindlimb skin of capsaicin-treated rats by cutaneous application of mustard oil and by the significant decrease of unmyelinated fibers in both the sciatic and infraorbital nerves. The mechanoreceptive field (RF) and response properties of 31 vibrissa-sensitive neurons in capsaicin-treated rats were compared with those of 32 vibrissa-sensitive neurons in control (untreated or vehicle-treated) rats. The use of electronically controlled mechanical stimuli allowed quantitative analysis of response properties of vibrissa-sensitive neurons; these included the number of center- and surround-RF vibrissae within the RF (i.e., those vibrissae which when stimulated elicited >/=1 and <1 action potential per stimulus, respectively), the response magnitude and latency, and the selectivity of responses to stimulation of vibrissae in different directions with emphasis on combining both the response magnitude and direction of vibrissal deflection in a vector analysis. Neonatal capsaicin treatment was associated with significant increases in the total number of vibrissae, in the number of center-RF vibrissae per neuronal RF, and in the percentage of vibrissa-sensitive neurons that also responded to stimulation of other types of orofacial tissues. Compared with control rats, capsaicin-treated rats showed significant increases in the response magnitude to stimulation of surround-RF vibrissae as well as in response latency variability to stimulation of both center- and surround-RF vibrissae. C-fiber depletion also significantly altered the directional selectivity of responses to stimulation of vibrissae. For neurons with multiple center-RF vibrissae, the proportion of center-RF vibrissae with net vector responses oriented toward the same quadrant was significantly less in capsaicin-treated compared with control rats. These changes in the functional properties of principalis vibrissa-sensitive neurons associated with marked depletion of C-fiber afferents are consistent with similarly induced alterations in LTM neurons studied at other levels of the rodent somatosensory system, and indeed may contribute to alterations previously described in the somatosensory cortex of adult rodents. Furthermore, these results provide additional support to the view that C fibers may have an important role in shaping the functional properties of LTM neurons in central somatosensory pathways. (+info)
Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.)
Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine. (+info)
Influence of tangeretin on tamoxifen's therapeutic benefit in mammary cancer.
BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen and the citrus flavonoid tangeretin exhibit similar inhibitory effects on the growth and invasive properties of human mammary cancer cells in vitro; furthermore, the two agents have displayed additive effects in vitro. In this study, we examined whether tangeretin would enhance tamoxifen's therapeutic benefit in vivo. METHODS: Female nude mice (n = 80) were inoculated subcutaneously with human MCF-7/6 mammary adenocarcinoma cells. Groups of 20 mice were treated orally by adding the following substances to their drinking water: tamoxifen (3 x 10(-5) M), tangeretin (1 x 10(-4) M), tamoxifen plus tangeretin (3 x 10(-5) M plus 1 x 10(-4) M), or solvent. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Oral treatment of mice with tamoxifen resulted in a statistically significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with solvent treatment (two-sided P = .001). Treatment with tangeretin did not inhibit tumor growth, and addition of this compound to drinking water with tamoxifen completely neutralized tamoxifen's inhibitory effect. The median survival time of tumor-bearing mice treated with tamoxifen plus tangeretin was reduced in comparison with that of mice treated with tamoxifen alone (14 versus 56 weeks; two-sided P = .002). Tangeretin (1 x 10(-6) M or higher) inhibited the cytolytic effect of murine natural killer cells on MCF-7/6 cells in vitro, which may explain why tamoxifen-induced inhibition of tumor growth in mice is abolished when tangeretin is present in drinking water. IMPLICATIONS: We describe an in vivo model to study potential interference of dietary compounds, such as flavonoids, with tamoxifen, which could lead to reduced efficacy of adjuvant therapy. In our study, the tumor growth-inhibiting effect of oral tamoxifen was reversed upon addition of tangeretin to the diet. Our data argue against excessive consumption of tangeretin-added products and supplements by patients with mammary cancer during tamoxifen treatment. (+info)
Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition.
Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase. (+info)
Extraction and analysis of cosmetic active ingredients from an anti-cellulitis transdermal delivery system by high-performance liquid chromatography.
A new transdermal delivery system that controls cellulitis is evaluated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. An extraction procedure and the validation of the analytical method to assay the active excipients from the Centella asiatica plant (asiaticoside, madacessic acid, and asiatic acid) are described. Excellent results ae obtained in terms of linearity, accuracy, and specificity of the analytical method. (+info)
Antagonistic effects of extract from leaves of ginkgo biloba on glutamate neurotoxicity.
AIM: To determine whether the extract of leaves of Ginkgo biloba L (EGb) and several active constituents of EGb have protective effects against glutamate (Glu)-induced neuronal damage. METHODS: Microscopy and image analysis of nucleus areas in the arcuate nuclei (AN) of mice were made. The neuronal viability in primary cultures from mouse cerebral cortex was assessed using MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] staining and the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of single neuron was measured using Fura-2. RESULTS: EGb (2.5 mg.L-1) and its constituent ginkgolide B (Gin B, 2 mg.L-1) protected the neuronal viability against Glu-induced injury, and prevented the Glu-induced elevation in [Ca2+]i. EGb (3-10 mg.kg-1) attenuated the decrease of nucleus areas in arcuate nuclei induced by Glu (1 g.kg-1, s.c.). CONCLUSION: EGb and Gin B prevent neurons from Glu neurotoxicity through reduction of the rise in [Ca2+]i. (+info)
Tobacco BY-2 cell-free extracts induce the recovery of microtubule nucleating activity of inactivated mammalian centrosomes.
The structure and the molecular composition of the microtubule-organizing centers in acentriolar higher plant cells remain unknown. We developed an in vitro complementation assay where tobacco BY-2 extracts can restore the microtubule-nucleating activity of urea-inactivated mammalian centrosomes. Our results provide first evidence that soluble microtubule-nucleating factors are present in the plant cytosolic fraction. The implication for microtubule nucleation in higher plants is discussed. (+info)
The hemolytic activity of bracken extracts in guinea pigs.
This study was conducted to elucidate the hemolytic activity of a new toxic substance in bracken fern. A crude extract (CE) was prepared from the methanol extracts of bracken by the column chromatography. When the CE was injected subcutaneously in guinea pigs, the hemoglobinuria and hemolysis were observed within 6 hr, and 3 days later edema and hemorrhages in the urinary bladder were observed. The CE was then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three (HF, BF and CF) of the fractions showed the toxic activities in guinea pigs. The HF caused the hemolysis, whereas both the BF and the CF caused the hemorrhagic cystitis without any hemolytic activities. The HF was further fractionated by the HPLC, resulting of the 3 fractions (HF-I, II and III). The hemolysis was caused only with the HF-II, and HF-II as well as HF did not cause the hemorrhagic cystitis. HPLC analysis revealed that both BF and CF contains braxin B and braxin C, respectively, and both HF and HF-II do not contain braxin A, B or C. These facts suggest that bracken fern contains a new toxic substance (hemolysin) which induces the acute hemolysis in guinea pigs. (+info)