Semialactone, isofouquierone peroxide and fouquierone, three new dammarane triterpenes from Rhus javanica.
Three new dammarane triterpenes and semialactic acid were isolated from the stem bark of Rhus javanica. The structures of these triterpenes, named semialactone, isofouquierone peroxide and fouquierone, were elucidated by 2D-NMR analysis (HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and HMBC), and the 13C-NMR data of semialatic acid is revised. (+info)
Quinone-type podocarpanes from the bark of Taiwania cryptomerioides.
Three quinone-type podocarpanes, 3beta-hydroxy-13-methoxy-8,12-podocarpadiene-11,14-dione (1), 18-hydroxy-13-methoxy-8,12-podocarpadiene-11,14-dione (2), and 13-methoxy-8,12-podocarpadiene-2,11,14-trione (3) were isolated from the bark of Taiwania cryptomerioides. Their structures were elucidated using spectral methods. (+info)
Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract.
BACKGROUND: Tabebuia avellanedae is a tree from the Bignoniaceae family. Commonly know as "pau d'arco" in Brazil, its inner bark is used as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplasic and diuretic at the Brazilian northeast. A validation of the plant usage has not been previously performed. RESULTS: Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark were measured by nociceptive experimental models in mice. A rat paw edema test induced by carrageenan (1%) was also performed in rats to access the plant's antiedematogenic effect. The inner bark aqueous extract, administered via oral in three different concentration, namely 100, 200 and 400 mg/Kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid (0.6% in water, i.p.) by 49.9%, 63.7% and 43.8%, respectively. The aqueous extract (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) reduced formalin (1%) effects only at the second phase of the experiment by 49.3% and 53.7%, respectively. Naloxone (5 mg/Kg, i.p.) was not able to revert the extract effect, however caffeine (10 mg/Kg, i.p.) reverted its effect by 19.8% at the second phase of the formalin test. The aqueous extract (200 mg/Kg, p.o.) inhibited edema by 12.9% when we used the rat paw edema model. The acute toxicity was low in mice. CONCLUSION: The T. avellanedae inner bark aqueous extract presented antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activities at the used models, with a possible antinociceptive effect associated to the adenosine system. (+info)
Stem diameter variations and cold hardiness in walnut trees.
The effect of freezing temperatures on stem diameter was measured in the field and in climatic chambers using linear variable differential transformers (LVDT sensors). In acclimated stems, there was reversible stem shrinkage associated with freeze-thaw cycles. The maximum shrinkage correlated with stem diameter (thickness of the bark). The wood was responsible for only 15% of the shrinkage associated with a freeze event, and experiments with isolated bark showed that connection with the wood was not necessary for most of the freeze-induced shrinkage to occur. Considering the amount of stem shrinkage associated with summer drought in walnut, the amount of contraction of the bark with freezing was actually much less than might be predicted by water relations theory. Reversible stem shrinkage occurred in living tissues, but not in autoclaved tissues. For the latter, swelling was observed with freezing and this swelling could be explained by the bark alone. Similar swelling was observed during September and October for non-acclimated plants. Water was lost with each freeze-thaw cycle starting with the first, and freezing injury of the bark, with discoloration of tissues, was also observed in non-acclimated plants. Given that the diameter fluctuation patterns were dramatically different for acclimated versus non-acclimated plants, and for living versus autoclaved tissues, LVDT sensors could represent a novel, non-invasive approach to testing cold hardiness. (+info)
A bioactive spirolactone iridoid and triterpenoids from Himatanthus sucuuba.
Himatanthus sucuuba is an Amazonian tree with abundant, yet conflicting ethnobotanical information. Investigation of the polar and non-polar constituents led to the isolation of plumericin, a bioactive spirolactone iridoid, and four known pentacylic triterpenes: lupeol acetate, lupeol cinnamate, lupeol beta-phenyl propionate, and alpha-amyrin cinnamate. (+info)
Antiproliferative constituents in the plants 7. Leaves of Clerodendron bungei and leaves and bark of C. trichotomum.
The constituents of the leaves of Clerodendron bungei STEUD. (Verbenaceae) and leaves and bark of C. trichotomum THUNB. were investigated guided by the antiproliferative activity against three tumor cell lines (MK-1: human gastric adenocarcinoma, HeLa: human uterus carcinoma, and B16F10: murine melanoma). Two phenylethanoid glycoside caffeic acid esters, acteoside and isoacteoside, were isolated as the constituents which selectively inhibit the growth of B16F10 cells. The antiproliferative activities against B16F10 cells of acteoside (GI50: 8 microM), isoacteoside (8 microM) and their methanolysis products, methyl caffeate (26 microM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol (8 microM), 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl glucoside (10 microM), desrhamnosyl acteoside (6 microM), and desrhamnosyl isoacteoside (6 microm) suggested that the 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol group might be more responsible for the activities of acteoside and isoacteoside than the caffeoyl group. The activities of chlorogenic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) alanine, 3,4-dihydroxy-phenethylamine hydrochloride, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, and five dihydroxybenzoic acids were also determined and compared with those of the above compounds. (+info)
Anti-tumor-promoting activity of the diterpene from Excoecaria agallocha. II.
Eight new diterpenoids (1-8) have been isolated from the wood of Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae) and their inhibitory effects on the induction of Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells were examined to search for potent anti-tumor-promoters from natural resources. Of these compounds, the secolabdane-type diterpenoid, compound 7 exhibited a remarkable inhibitory effect on EBV-EA induction, and a significant anti-tumor-promoting effect in the mouse two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanovl-phorbol-13-acetate. (+info)
Myxomycetes from upper Egypt.
The results of the first inventory of Myxomycetes from the subtropical region Upper Egypt are reported. The substrates were wood, bark of living and dead tree and leaf litter. 20 species belonging to 17 genera of Myxomycetes were identified. Wood was the best substrate for Myxomycetes colonization. Ceratiomyxa fruticulosa, Didymiun melanospermum, Licea biforis and Lycogala epidendrum were the most common species. Brief description and classification of species are provided. (+info)