(1/362) Focal aneurysmal dilatation of subchorionic vessels simulating chorioangioma.
Subchorionic vascular aneurysms of the placenta are rare lesions and may present confusion with chorioangioma or focal mesenchymal dysplasia on sonography. To our knowledge, the findings of placental aneurysms have not been reported in the ultrasound literature. We present a case with detailed sonographic evaluation, including spectral and color Doppler and pathological analysis, that was mistaken for chorioangioma prenatally. Knowledge of this benign entity may allow the sonologist to recommend conservative management in similar cases. (+info)
(2/362) Immunity to placental malaria. I. Elevated production of interferon-gamma by placental blood mononuclear cells is associated with protection in an area with high transmission of malaria.
In areas in which malaria is holoendemic, primigravidae and secundigravidae, compared with multigravidae, are highly susceptible to placental malaria (PM). The nature of gravidity-dependent immune protection against PM was investigated by measuring in vitro production of cytokines by placental intervillous blood mononuclear cells (IVBMC). The results demonstrated that interferon (IFN)-gamma may be a critical factor in protection against PM: production of this cytokine by PM-negative multigravid IVBMC was elevated compared with PM-negative primigravid and secundigravid and PM-positive multigravid cells. Low IFN-gamma responsiveness to malarial antigen stimulation, most evident in the latter group, was balanced by increased interleukin (IL)-4 production, suggesting that counter-regulation of these two cytokines may be a crucial determinant in susceptibility to PM. A counter-regulatory relationship between IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was also observed in response to malarial antigen stimulation. These data suggest that elevated production of IFN-gamma, as part of a carefully regulated cytokine network, is important in the control of PM. (+info)
(3/362) The factor V Leiden mutation in Japanese couples with recurrent spontaneous abortion.
Thrombosis of placental vessels can be a major cause of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, a single point mutation in the factor V gene, is the most common genetic predisposition to thrombosis in European countries and the United States. However, even among Caucasian populations, the association between the FVL mutation and RSA is still controversial. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of the FVL mutation in Japanese women who have experienced RSA and to clarify the contribution of the FVL mutation to recurrent miscarriages. A total of 52 Japanese women with a history of three or more consecutive idiopathic first trimester miscarriages and 41 of their male partners were studied. The control group consisted of 55 parous women without obstetric complications. Peripheral blood cell DNA was examined for the presence of the FVL alleles by polymerase chain reaction with Mnl I restriction fragment length polymorphisms. None of the 52 women with RSA and the 41 partners carried the mutation. We also found no subject carrying the FVL alleles in the control group. These results suggest that the FVL alleles are not concentrated in women with RSA at least to clinically significant levels and that there is no apparent association between the FVL mutation and RSA in our Japanese population. (+info)
(4/362) Maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -3 and fetal growth.
This was a prospective observational study of maternal insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 and -3 and fetal growth in 141 pregnant women after 24 weeks gestation who were scanned and venesected fortnightly. Cases (birthweight <5th centile) were sub-divided into those with growth restriction due to placental dysfunction (n = 25) and normal small (n = 27) and there were 89 normally grown controls. Maternal binding protein-3 was measured by radioimmunoassay and the overall pattern of the binding proteins and their proteolytic modifications were assessed by Western ligand blotting and immunoblotting followed by densitometric analysis. In controls, there was no correlation between binding protein-3 and birthweight, and binding protein-3 was elevated in the normal small but not the placental dysfunction group. Complete proteolysis of the 40 kDa doublet of binding protein-3 was observed in all pregnancies. Maternal serum binding protein-2 concentrations were unchanged in normal pregnancy compared to non-pregnant controls but elevated in the growth-restricted group and in all pregnancies binding protein-2 was predominantly present as a 14 kDa proteolysed fragment. These results suggest that compensatory changes in binding protein-2 and -3 or their proteolysis do not increase bioavailability and so do not confound the low maternal insulin-like growth factor-I in growth restricted pregnancies. (+info)
(5/362) Pathophysiology and treatment of fetal anemia due to placental chorioangioma.
Placental chorioangiomas occur in 1% of pregnancies. Large chorioangiomas may cause serious complications such as fetal anemia, hydrops and fetal death. In this case report, a pregnancy complicated by a large placental chorioangioma is described. Severe fetal anemia without the occurrence of hydrops fetalis was suspected using ultrasound and Doppler examinations. Successful intrauterine blood transfusion was performed, with an unusually large amount of blood needed to obtain an adequate rise in fetal hematocrit. Two weeks later, at 32 weeks, the infant was born in good condition. In pregnancies with large chorioangiomas, we advise regular ultrasound and Doppler examinations, with the aim of detecting fetal anemia before hydrops develops. When anemia is suspected, fetal blood sampling is indicated and intrauterine transfusion therapy may be beneficial to preserve fetal health until maturity is reached. (+info)
(6/362) The role of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 phosphoisoforms in pregnancies with impaired placental function identified by doppler ultrasound.
This study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) is involved in the pathogenesis of trophoblast invasion and impaired placentation in human pregnancy. The role of total and non-phosphorylated IGFBP-1 in women with fetal growth restriction and in high risk pregnancies identified by uterine artery Doppler ultrasound screening was examined. This was a prospective study of women booked for antenatal care having second trimester anomaly scans and Doppler screening between 22-26 weeks gestation. Women were divided into three groups and compared: normal uterine artery Doppler and normal fetal growth (control group, n = 10); abnormal Doppler and normal fetal growth [bilateral uterine artery notches (BN; n = 16); abnormal Doppler and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR; n = 8)]. Maternal serum was collected, stored and assayed simultaneously for total and non-phosphorylated IGFBP-1. There was elevated total and non-phosphorylated IGFBP-1 (mean 44.99 +/- 12.19 and 29.61 +/- 10.38 microg/l respectively) in the IUGR group compared with controls (mean 17.96 +/- 3.24 and 12.18 +/- 1.55 microg/l, P < 0.05). This finding suggests that the various IGFBP-1 isoforms, the degree of phosphorylation and the ratios of these different forms locally may be important during trophoblast invasion and may be implicated in clinical manifestations of impaired placentation later in the second trimester. (+info)
(7/362) The metabolic effect of antenatal corticosteroid therapy.
The use of antenatal dexamethasone to mature the fetal lung in pregnancies likely to deliver before 34 weeks is almost universal. It reduces the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn and results in an overall improvement in neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although considered to be generally safe, there are concerns about adverse maternal and fetal effects. In a series of studies, we have found that antenatal dexamethasone administration is associated with reduced placental hormone production and maternal bone formation, impaired glucose tolerance and altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. In this article, we have compared our data with other reports in the human and reviewed the relevant animal data. We conclude that further studies on the long-term effects of antenatal dexamethasone therapy in the human are warranted with particular emphasis on the long-term effects on the fetus. (+info)
(8/362) Effects of massive doses of ergocalciferol plus cholesterol on pregnant rats and their offspring.
Ergocalciferol (320,000 or 480,000 IU/kg) plus cholesterol (60 mg/kg) in olive oil solution was administered daily on 1, 2, or 4 consecutive days to pregnant rats from 9,10, 14, or 18 of gestation. The control animals received only olive oil. Disseminated lesions of metastic calcinosis were found in various tissues, in the coronary arteries and myocardium, in the media of the abnormal aorta, in the lung and pleura, in the gastoinstestinal tract, and in the kidney. This is in contrast to the atherosclerosis described in nonpregnant rats fed a similiar diet. A significant decline in maternal weight as well as a high rate of morbidity and mortality was observed. In mothers killed on day 22 of pregnancy, fetal and placental growths appeared significantly retarded suggesting a direct effect of the steroid or its more active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, on the fetus or the trophoblastic tissue. Fetal bone lesionsassociated with a generalized retardation of ossification, placental edema, or calcification accompanied by a loss of the normal structure of the placenta and degenerative manifestation at this level were observed. Moreover, we noted a striking alteration of the fetal face in 33-39% of experimental fetuses, called by us carnival fetuses. (+info)