Bromocriptine treatment of female infertility: report of 13 pregnancies.
Thirteen pregnancies occurred in 12 women who were treated with bromocriptine for infertility. Pretreatment prolactin levels were recorded in 11 patients and were normal in three. Five patients had suspected pituitary tumours, and they received irradiation to prevent swelling of the pituitary and the consequent visual field defects caused by the pressure of the swollen gland on the optic nerve. Ten of the 13 pregnancies have come to term, and all the babies were normal. When a patient with a pituitary tumour developed a visual field defect in the 38th week of pregnancy labour was induced and the defect disappeared after delivery. No multiple pregnancies occurred and there were no major complications. (+info)
Delayed radiation necrosis of the central nervous system in patients irradiated for pituitary tumours.
Four cases of delayed radiation necrosis involving the CNS were found in a group of 46 patients irradiated for pituitary tumours over a six year period. This occurred in three of 11 patients with Cushing's disease representing an incidence of 27% in this group. There were no cases among 11 patients with acromegaly or among seven with prolactinomas. One case (6%) was found in the 17 patients with chromophobe adenomas. Standard doses of radiation were delivered to these patients and the findings support suggestions that the metabolic disturbances of Cushing's disease may reduce tolerance to radiation. Our results and a literature review indicate that if radiotherapy is used to treat Cushing's disease, the total dose should be less than 50 Gy at 2 Gy per day fractionation. (+info)
Prolactin secreting pituitary carcinoma.
A man with a prolactin secreting pituitary carcinoma was treated by surgery and radiotherapy. Persistent hyperprolactinaemia partially responded to oral bromocriptine for four years. Serum prolactin then rose considerably with rapid, invasive tumour recurrence. Cytotoxic chemotherapy halted tumour progression for twelve months before fatal spread throughout the brain. Failure to normalise serum prolactin with bromocriptine may precede an aggressive course in patients with prolactinoma. (+info)
Long-term anterior pituitary function in patients with paediatric Cushing's disease treated with pituitary radiotherapy.
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Pituitary radiotherapy (RT) is an effective second-line treatment for paediatric Cushing's disease (CD). Although the short-term effects of pituitary RT are well documented, there are less data on possible long-term sequelae. We report the long-term anterior pituitary function in a cohort of paediatric CD patients treated with pituitary RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1983 and 2006, 12 paediatric CD patients (10 males and 2 females) of mean age 11.4 years at diagnosis (range 6.4-17.4) underwent second-line pituitary RT (45 Gy in 25 fractions), following unsuccessful transsphenoidal surgery. Out of 12, 11 patients were cured by RT (cure interval 0.13-2.86 years) defined by mean serum cortisol of <150 nmol/l on 5-point day curve and midnight sleeping cortisol of <50 nmol/l. Long-term data are available for six male patients, who received RT at the age of 7.0-17.6 years. The mean follow-up from the completion of RT was 10.5 years (6.6-16.5). RESULTS: At a mean of 1.0 year (0.11-2.54) following RT, GH deficiency (peak GH <1-17.9 mU/l) was present in five out of six patients. On retesting at a mean of 9.3 years (7.6-11.3) after RT, three out of four patients were GH sufficient (peak GH 19.2-50.4 mU/l). Other anterior pituitary functions including serum prolactin in five out of six patients were normal on follow-up. All the six patients had testicular volumes of 20-25 ml at the age of 14.5-28.5 years. CONCLUSION: This series of patients illustrates the absence of serious long-term pituitary deficiency after RT and emphasises the importance of continued surveillance. (+info)
Craniopharyngiomas. Historical aspects of their management.
The history of the management of craniopharyngiomas offers a comprehensive review of the exciting progress in neurosurgery, neuroimaging, neuroendocrinology and radiation oncology during the last century. In this historical note, we present the evolution in management of these most challenging of brain tumours, which, despite the substantial knowledge and expertise gained since the first attempt of surgical removal, remains a subject of considerable debate. (+info)
Combined reserpine and pituitary irradiation therapy for Cushing's disease patients following unsuccessful transsphenoidal microsurgery.
The effectiveness of treatment with reserpine and pituitary irradiation, and with reserpine alone was evaluated in three female patients with Cushing's disease whose transsphenoidal pituitary microsurgery (TPM) had been unsuccessful. In these patients, endocrinological examination after the surgery demonstrated a recurrence of the disease although the microadenomas had apparently been curetted out from the pituitary in all patients. The first patient therefore received 1.0-2.0 mg/day of reserpine with 60 Gy x-ray irradiation, and there was complete remission within 3 months and the patient remained asymptomatic even when reserpine was reduced to 0.1 mg/day 10 years later. The second case was treated with low dose x-ray (20 Gy) and reserpine (0.5-2.0 mg/day), which were also effective. However, 2 weeks discontinuation of the drug caused urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroids (17-OHCS) and serum cortisol to increase abnormally again, but these were finally re-normalized by an additional administration of reserpine. The third case was given reserpine alone (1.0-2.0 mg/day). She also had a remission in 3 months and the treatment was continued for one year, requiring no further treatment. These results suggest that additional treatment with reserpine and pituitary irradiation or with reserpine alone after unsuccessful TPM may be an effective alternative for patients with Cushing's disease. (+info)
Repeat pituitary ablation for advanced prostatic cancer.
An elderly male patient with advanced prostatic adenocarcinoma, requiring increasing analgesia, underwent interstitial pituitary irradiation by implantation of yttrium-90. He was temporarily relieved of his pain. Assessment of his anterior pituitary function showed only partial ablation. He therefore underwent a second implantation. This achieved complete ablation, and only when this was achieved did he experience full and sustained pain relief. We recommend assessment of anterior pituitary function in patients treated by pituitary ablation for carcinoma of the prostate, and especially in those in whom the disease progresses after initial success response. (+info)
Sebum excretion in acromegaly.
The sebum excretion rate (S.E.R.) was measured in 20 patients with acromegaly. Eleven were untreated at the time of the measurement and nine had previously undergone surgical hypophysectomy or had received pituitary irradiation by yttrium-90 or radiotherapy. In five patients the S.E.R. was measured before and after such treatment. The mean S.E.R. in the untreated acromegalics was much greater than in a normal population and decreased significantly after successful pituitary ablation. No significant decrease in mean S.E.R. occurred in the group of patients with a poor clinical response to ablation. The correlations between S.E.R. and log serum growth hormone, plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroid levels, and heel-pad thickness were significant, but there was no significant correlation between S.E.R. and serum protein-bound iodine levels. This suggests that the changes in S.E.R. were due to pituitary ablation but could not necessarily be attributed solely to changes in growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, or adrenocorticotrophic hormone. The association between the clinical state of the acromegaly and the S.E.R. was better than the association between acromegaly and serum growth hormone. We conclude that the S.E.R. is a useful addition to the clinical and endocrinological data used in assessing acromegaly. (+info)