Cellular localization and role of prohormone convertases in the processing of pro-melanin concentrating hormone in mammals.
Melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and neuropeptide EI (NEI) are two peptides produced from the same precursor in mammals, by cleavage at the Arg145-Arg146 site and the Lys129-Arg130 site, respectively. We performed co-localization studies to reveal simultaneously the expression of MCH mRNA and proconvertases (PCs) such as PC1/3 or PC2. In the rat hypothalamus, PC2 was present in all MCH neurons, and PC1/3 was present in about 15-20% of these cells. PC1/3 or PC2 was not found in MCH-positive cells in the spleen. In GH4C1 cells co-infected with vaccinia virus (VV):pro-MCH along with VV:furin, PACE4, PC1/3, PC2, PC5/6A, PC5/6B, or PC7, we observed only efficient cleavage at the Arg145-Arg146 site to generate mature MCH. Co-expression of pro-MCH together with PC2 and 7B2 resulted in very weak processing to NEI. Comparison of pro-MCH processing patterns in PC1/3- or PC2-transfected PC12 cells showed that PC2 but not PC1/3 generated NEI. Finally, we analyzed the pattern of pro-MCH processing in PC2 null mice. In the brain of homozygotic mutants, the production of mature NEI was dramatically reduced. In contrast, MCH content was increased in the hypothalamus of PC2 null mice. In the spleen, a single large MCH-containing peptide was identified in both wild type and PC2 null mice. Together, our data suggest that pro-MCH is processed differently in the brain and in peripheral organs of mammals. PC2 is the key enzyme that produces NEI, whereas several PCs may cleave at the Arg145-Arg146 site to generate MCH in neuronal cell types. (+info)
The effect of the orexins on food intake: comparison with neuropeptide Y, melanin-concentrating hormone and galanin.
Orexin-A and orexin-B (the hypocretins) are recently described neuropeptides suggested to have a physiological role in the regulation of food intake in the rat. We compared the orexigenic effect of the orexins administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) with other known stimulants of food intake, one strong, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and two weaker, melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and galanin. Orexin-A consistently stimulated food intake, but orexin-B only on occasions. Both peptides stimulated food intake significantly less than NPY, but to a similar extent to MCH (2 h food intake: NPY 3 nmol, 7.2+/-0.9 g vs saline, 1.5+/-0.2 g, P<0.001, MCH 3 nmol, 3.2+/-0.8 g vs saline, P<0.01, orexin-B 30 nmol, 2. 6+/-0.5 g vs saline, P=0.11) and to galanin (1 h food intake: galanin 3 nmol, 2.0+/-0.4 g vs saline, 0.8+/-0.2 g, P<0.05, orexin-A 3 nmol 2.2+/-0.4 g vs saline, P<0.01; 2 hour food intake: orexin-B 3 nmol, 2.4+/-0.3 g vs saline, 1.3+/-0.2 g, P<0.05). Following ICV orexin-A, hypothalamic c-fos, a maker of neuronal activation, was highly expressed in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the arcuate nucleus (P<0.005 for both). IntraPVN injection of orexin-A stimulated 2 h food intake by one gram (orexin-A 0.03 nmol, 1.6+/-0. 3 g vs saline, 0.5+/-0.3 g, P<0.005). These findings support the suggestion that the orexins stimulate food intake. However, this effect is weak and may cast doubt upon their physiological importance in appetite regulation in the rat. (+info)
The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 is required for peptide hormone processing in vivo and provides a novel mechanism for pituitary Cushing's disease.
The neuroendocrine protein 7B2 has been implicated in activation of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2), an important neuroendocrine precursor processing endoprotease. To test this hypothesis, we created a null mutation in 7B2 employing a novel transposon-facilitated technique and compared the phenotypes of 7B2 and PC2 nulls. 7B2 null mice have no demonstrable PC2 activity, are deficient in processing islet hormones, and display hypoglycemia, hyperproinsulinemia, and hypoglucagonemia. In contrast to the PC2 null phenotype, these mice show markedly elevated circulating ACTH and corticosterone levels, with adrenocortical expansion. They die before 9 weeks of severe Cushing's syndrome arising from pituitary intermediate lobe ACTH hypersecretion. We conclude that 7B2 is indeed required for activation of PC2 in vivo but has additional important functions in regulating pituitary hormone secretion. (+info)
Relationship between fertilization results after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and intrafollicular steroid, pituitary hormone and cytokine concentrations.
Previous studies relating hormone and cytokine concentrations in follicular fluid to oocyte fertilizability were flawed by the uncertainty about the actual oocyte maturity status at the time of recovery and by the possible contribution of the male factor to failures of conventional in-vitro fertilization. This is the first study in which oocyte maturity was assessed immediately after recovery and only mature oocytes were selected for treatment by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Fertilization outcomes were related to follicular fluid concentrations of 17beta-oestradiol, progesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha). Those oocytes that subsequently showed normal fertilization were harvested from follicles with higher concentrations of progesterone, GH, PRL, IL-1 and TNF alpha as compared with those of oocytes that failed to fertilize. Among the normally fertilized oocytes, low GH concentrations were associated with the failure of cleavage and with poor morphology of cleaving embryos, whereas rapidly cleaving embryos developed from oocytes recovered from follicles with high concentrations of LH and IL-1. These data suggest important roles for GH, IL-1 and TNF alpha, and of residual LH after pituitary suppression, as positive regulators of the final phase of oocyte intrafollicular development. (+info)
Identification of melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) as the natural ligand for the orphan somatostatin-like receptor 1 (SLC-1).
To identify possible ligands of the orphan somatostatin-like receptor 1 (SLC-1), rat brain extracts were analyzed by using the functional expression system of Xenopus oocytes injected with cRNAs encoding SLC-1 and G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK). A strong inward current was observed with crude rat brain extracts which upon further purification by cation exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) yielded two peptides with a high agonist activity. Mass spectrometry and partial peptide sequencing revealed that one peptide is identical with the neuropeptide melanin concentrating hormone (MCH), the other represents a truncated version of MCH lacking the three N-terminal amino acid residues. Xenopus oocytes expressing the MCH receptor responded to nM concentrations of synthetic MCH not only by the activation of GIRK-mediated currents but also by the induction of Ca(2+) dependent chloride currents mediated by phospholipase C. This indicates that the MCH receptor can couple either to the G(i)- or G(q)-mediated signal transduction pathway, suggesting that MCH may serve for a number of distinct brain functions including food uptake behavior. (+info)
Multiple interactions between pituitary hormones and the mannose receptor.
The macrophage mannose receptor, which has a well-documented role in the innate immune system, has an additional function in the clearance of pituitary hormones. Clearance is mediated by the recognition of sulphated terminal N-acetylgalactosamine residues (SO(4)-4GalNAc) on the hormones. Previous studies with an SO(4)-4GalNAc-containing neoglycoprotein suggest that the SO(4)-4GalNAc-binding site is localized to the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain of the receptor, distinct from the mannose/N-acetylglucosamine/fucose-specific C-type carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). The present study characterizes the binding of natural pituitary hormone ligands to a soluble portion of the mannose receptor consisting of the whole extracellular domain and to a truncated form containing the eight CRDs but lacking the N-terminal cysteine-rich domain and the fibronectin type II repeat. Both forms of the receptor show high-affinity saturable binding of lutropin and thyrotropin. Binding to the full-length receptor is dependent on pH and ionic strength and is inhibited effectively by SO(4)-4GalNAc but only partly by mannose. In contrast, binding to the truncated form of the receptor, which is also dependent on pH and ionic strength, is inhibited by mannose but not by SO(4)-4GalNAc. The results are consistent with the presence of an SO(4)-4GalNAc-specific binding site in the cysteine-rich domain of the mannose receptor but indicate that interactions between other sugars on the hormones and the CRDs are also important in hormone binding. (+info)
Changes in the levels of mRNAs for GH/prolactin/somatolactin family and Pit-1/GHF-1 in the pituitaries of pre-spawning chum salmon.
Changes in the levels of pituitary mRNAs encoding GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) were determined in pre-spawning chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) caught at a few key points along their homing pathway in 1994 and 1995. Furthermore, we analyzed relationships between expression of pituitary-specific POU homeodomain transcription factor (Pit-1/GHF-1) and GH/PRL/SL family genes. In 1994, seawater (SW) fish and matured fresh-water (FW) fish were sequentially captured at two points along their homing pathway, the coast and the hatchery. In addition to these two points, maturing FW fish were captured at the intermediate of the two points in 1995. The levels of hormonal mRNAs were determined by a quantitative dot blot analysis using single-stranded sense DNA as the standard. Relative levels of Pit-1/GHF-1 mRNAs were estimated by Northern blot analysis. In 1994, the levels of GH/PRL/SL family mRNAs except for PRL mRNA in the male FW fish were 1.8-4 times higher than those in the SW fish. In 1995, the level of PRL mRNA was somewhat sharply elevated in the maturing FW fish soon after entry into the FW environment, while that of SL mRNA was gradually increased during upstream migration from the coast to the hatchery. The levels of 3 kb Pit-1/GHF-1 mRNA in the FW fish were higher than those in the SW fish in both 1994 and 1995. The present results indicate that expression of genes for the GH/PRL/SL family and Pit-1/GHF-1 is coincidentally enhanced in homing chum salmon. Moreover, the present study suggests that expression of the SL gene is elevated with sexual maturation, whereas that of PRL gene is elevated with osmotic change during the final stages of spawning migration. (+info)
Control of ovarian cell growth in culture by serum and pituitary factors.
An ovarian cell line was developed that requires hormonal conditioning of the host for growth in vivo and that requires special factors for growth in vitro. It is necessary to prepare special culture media to demonstrate the effects of growth factors in vitro. To this end, methods were developed for removing from serum those essential factors required for the growth of ovarian cells in culture. Minimal growth occurred in medium containing fetal calf serum that had been passed through a porcelain filter. This method of depleting serum was replaced by a procedure involving passage through a carboxymethylcellulose column. Either pituitary extract or the eluate from the column restored growth in these depleted media. The eluate was more active than pituitary extract with regard to maximal growth enhancement. When the cells were incubated in the depleted media, viability, as measured by plating efficiency, decreased with incubation time. Either pituitary extract or the eluate from the column prevented such death of cells. Based on these findings, we postulate that the eluate contains both a survival factor and a growth-promoting factor for these ovarian cells, while pituitary extract contains only the survival factor. (+info)