Differential blockade of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors by the neuroactive steroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in posterior and intermediate pituitary.
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a neuroactive steroid with antagonist action at gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. Patch-clamp techniques were used to investigate DHEAS actions at GABAA receptors of the rat pituitary gland at two distinct loci: posterior pituitary nerve terminals and intermediate pituitary endocrine cells. The GABA responses in these two regions were quite different, with posterior pituitary responses having smaller amplitudes and desensitizing more rapidly and more completely. DHEAS blockade of GABAA receptors in the two regions also was different. In posterior pituitary, a site with an apparent dissociation constant of 15 microM accounted for most of the blockade, but a small fraction of blockade may be related to a site with a dissociation constant in the nanomolar range. In the intermediate lobe, DHEAS sensitivities in the nanomolar and micromolar ranges were clearly evident, in proportions that varied widely from cell to cell. Regardless of whether the GABA response of a cell was highly sensitive or weakly sensitive to DHEAS, GABA alone evoked currents that were indistinguishable in terms of amplitude, desensitization kinetics, and GABA sensitivity. Thus, the structural elements responsible for DHEAS blockade have a highly selective impact on receptor function. GABAA receptors with nanomolar sensitivity to DHEAS have not been described previously. This suggests that DHEAS may have an important role in the modulation of neuropeptide secretion, and the diverse properties of GABAA receptors in the rat pituitary provide mechanisms for selective regulation of the different peptidergic systems of this gland. (+info)
Local regulation of vasopressin and oxytocin secretion by extracellular ATP in the isolated posterior lobe of the rat hypophysis.
It is now widely accepted that ATP functions as a signalling substance in the nervous system. The presence of P2 receptors mediating the action of extracellular ATP in brain regions involved in hormonal regulation raises the possibility that a similar role for ATP might also exist in the neuroendocrine system. In this study, the release from the rat isolated neurohypophysis preparation of endogenous ATP, oxytocin and vasopressin (AVP) were measured simultaneously using luciferin-luciferase and RIA techniques. After 70 min preperfusion, electrical field stimulation caused a rapid increase in the amount of ATP in the effluent and the release of AVP and oxytocin also increased stimulation-dependently. Inhibition of voltage-dependent Na+ channels by tetrodotoxin (1 microM) reduced the stimulation-evoked release of AVP and oxytocin; however, the evoked release of ATP remained unaffected. The effect of endogenous ATP on the hormone secretion was tested by suramin (300 microM), the P2 receptor antagonist. Suramin significantly increased the release of AVP, and the release of oxytocin was also enhanced. ATP, when applied to the superfusing medium, decreased the release of AVP, but not that of oxytocin, and its effect was prevented by suramin. ATP (60 nmol), added to the tissues, was readily decomposed to ADP, AMP and adenosine measured by HPLC combined with ultraviolet light detection, and the kinetic parameters of the enzymes responsible for inactivation of ATP (ectoATPase and ecto5'-nucleotidase) were also determined (Km=264+/-2.7 and 334+/-165 microM and vmax=6.7+/-1.1 and 2.54+/-0.24 nmol/min per preparation (n=3) for ectoATPase and ecto5'-nucleotidase respectively). Taken together, our data demonstrate the stimulation-dependent release, P2 receptor-mediated action and extracellular metabolism of endogenous ATP in the posterior lobe of the hypophysis and indicate its role, as a paracrine regulator, in the local control of hormone secretion. (+info)
Stimulus-secretion coupling in neurohypophysial nerve endings: a role for intravesicular sodium?
It is generally accepted that Ca is essentially involved in regulated secretion, but the role of this cation, as well as others such as Na, is not well understood. An illustrative example occurs in neurohypophysial secretion, where an experimentally induced increase in the cytosolic concentration of Na+ can induce continuous neuropeptide release. In contrast, an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ will have only a transient stimulatory effect. The secretion-promoting targets for Ca2+ are not known; they may be cytosolic, as is usually assumed, but they may also be intravesicular, especially in view of evidence that Ca-rich secretory vesicles are preferentially secreted. In the present work, we have investigated the movements of these cations into and out of secretory vesicles during stimulus-secretion coupling. Isolated rat neurohypophysial nerve endings were stimulated by potassium (55 mM) depolarization, and at 6 min (peak secretion) and 20 min after the onset of stimulation, the elemental content of individual secretory vesicles was measured by quantitative x-ray microanalysis. A depolarization-induced transient increase in intravesicular Na+ concentration was found to coincide with the onset of secretion. Moreover, only a predicted small fraction of peripheral vesicles-presumably the docked ones-were Na+-loaded. The low sulfur concentration of Na+-rich vesicles most likely resulted from vesicle swelling. The results suggest that high intravesicular Na+ concentrations in docked vesicles, occurring by Na+/Ca2+ exchange or by transient fusion pore opening, is a proximal event in exocytosis. (+info)
Mutant vasopressin precursors that cause autosomal dominant neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus retain dimerization and impair the secretion of wild-type proteins.
Autosomal dominant familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus is caused by mutations in the arginine vasopressin (AVP) gene. We demonstrated recently that mutant AVP precursors accumulate within the endoplasmic reticulum of neuronal cells, leading to cellular toxicity. In this study, the possibility that mutant AVP precursors interact with wild-type (WT) proteins to alter their processing and function was explored. WT and mutant precursors were epitope-tagged to allow them to be distinguished in transfected cells. An in vivo cross-linking reaction revealed homo- and heterodimer formation between WT and mutant precursors. Mutant precursors were also shown to impair intracellular trafficking of WT precursors from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. In addition to the cytotoxicity caused by mutant AVP precursors, the interaction between the WT and mutant precursors suggests that a dominant-negative mechanism may also contribute to the pathogenesis of familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus. (+info)
Evidence for calcium inactivation during hormone release in the rat neurohypophysis.
1. A study has been made of the relationship between 45Ca uptake into and hormone release from isolated rat neurohypophyses incubated in vitro. 2. Hormone secretion is triggered by high-K (56 mM) but long exposure to the stimulus does not generate a maintained release of hormone. 3. When hormone release began to wane, addition of Ba of La increased hormone output which suggests that the decline in output did not result from depletion of the neurosecretory granules at the nerve terminals. 4. 45Ca uptake is enhanced in the presence of high-K concentration, but the initial high rate declines during long exposure to the potassium stimulus with a time constant similar to that of the decline in hormone release. 5. After a period of incubation in a K-rich, calcium-free medium, addition of calcium to the medium induced hormone release. The magnitude of this release was dependent on the time of exposure to excess potassium. 6. After inactivation of secretion, mobilization of internal calcium by means of a calcium ionophore increased hormone release. (+info)
Hypertonic saline test for the investigation of posterior pituitary function.
The hypertonic saline test is a useful technique for distinguishing partial diabetes insipidus from psychogenic polydipsia, and for the diagnosis of complex disorders of osmoreceptor and posterior pituitary function. However, there is little information concerning its use in childhood. The experience of using this test in five children (11 months to 18 years) who presented diagnostic problems is reported. In two patients, in whom water deprivation tests were equivocal or impractical, an inappropriately low antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentration (< 1 pmol/l) was demonstrated in the presence of an adequate osmotic stimulus (plasma osmolality > 295 mosmol/kg). In two children--one presenting with adipsic hypernatraemia and the other with hyponatraemia complicating desmopressin treatment of partial diabetes insipidus--defects of osmoreceptor function were identified. Confirming a diagnosis of idiopathic syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) was possible in a patient with no other evidence of pituitary dysfunction. The hypertonic saline test was well tolerated, easy to perform, and diagnostic in all cases. (+info)
Hormones and neurotransmitters have both short-term and long-term modulatory effects on the activity of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Although much is known about the signal transduction underlying short-term modulation, there is far less information on mechanisms that produce long-term effects. Here, the molecular basis of long-lasting suppression of Ca2+ channel current in pituitary melanotropes by chronic dopamine exposure is examined. Experiments involving in vivo and in vitro treatments with the dopaminergic drugs haloperidol, bromocriptine, and quinpirole show that D2 receptors persistently decrease alpha1D L-type Ca2+ channel mRNA and L-type Ca2+ channel current without altering channel gating properties. In contrast, another L-channel (alpha1C) mRNA and P/Q-channel (alpha1A) mRNA are unaffected. The downregulation of alpha1D mRNA does not require decreases in cAMP levels or P/Q-channel activity. However, it is mimicked and occluded by inhibition of L-type channels. Thus, interruption of the positive feedback between L-type Ca2+ channel activity and alpha1D gene expression can account for the long-lasting regulation of L-current produced by chronic activation of D2 dopamine receptors. (+info)
Pituitary involvement by Wegener's granulomatosis: a report of two cases.
We describe two cases of pituitary involvement by Wegener's granulomatosis. At initial presentation, or during subsequent disease "flares," a pattern of pituitary abnormality was suggested. During periods of remission, we found the pituitary returned to a nearly normal appearance. Loss of the normal posterior pituitary T1 hyper-intensity matched a clinical persistence of diabetes insipidus, suggesting there is permanent damage to this structure by the initial disease process. (+info)