Genetic composition and diploid hybrid speciation of a high mountain pine, Pinus densata, native to the Tibetan plateau.
Pinus densata has been suggested to have originated from hybridization events involving P. tabulaeformis and P. yunnanensis. In this study, allozyme differentiation at 12 loci was studied in 14 populations of P. tabulaeformis, P. densata, and P. yunnanensis from China. The observed genetic composition of P. densata supported the hybrid hypothesis and showed varying degrees of contribution from P. yunnanensis and P. tabulaeformis among its populations. These data, together with previous chloroplast DNA results, indicated different evolutionary histories among P. densata populations. To examine the possibility of ongoing hybridization among the three species, we analyzed patterns of linkage disequilibria between allozyme loci in ovule, pollen, and zygote pools. None of these tests suggested that there is significant ongoing gene exchange, implying that populations of P. densata have a stabilized hybrid nature. The normal fertility and high fecundity of P. densata indicate that this hybrid is maintained through sexual reproduction. P. densata represents an example of diploid hybrid speciation in an extreme ecological habitat that is both spatially and ecologically separated from that of its parents. (+info)
Anchored reference loci in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) for integrating pine genomics.
Anchored reference loci provide a framework for comparative mapping. They are landmarks to denote conserved chromosomal segments, allowing the synthesis of genetic maps from multiple sources. We evaluated 90 expressed sequence tag polymorphisms (ESTPs) from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) for this function. Primer sets were assayed for amplification and polymorphism in six pedigrees, representing two subgenera of Pinus and a distant member of the Pinaceae, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco). On average, 89% of primer sets amplified in four species of subgenus Pinus, 49% in one species of subgenus Strobus, and 22% in Douglas-fir. Polymorphisms were detected for 37-61% of the ESTPs within each pedigree. Comparative mapping in loblolly and slash pine (P. elliottii Englm.) revealed that ESTPs mapped to the same location. Disrupted synteny or significant disruptions in colinearity were not detected. Thirty-five ESTPs met criteria established for anchor loci. The majority of those that did not meet these criteria were excluded when map location was known in only a single species. Anchor loci provide a unifying tool for the community, facilitating the creation of a "generic" pine map and serving as a foundation for studies on genome organization and evolution. (+info)
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and assessment of factors influencing transgene expression in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.).
This investigation reports a protocol for transfer and expression of foreign chimeric genes in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). Transformation was achieved by co-cultivation of mature zygotic embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 which harbored a binary vector (pBI121) including genes for beta-glucuronidase (GUS) and neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). Factors influencing transgene expression including seed sources of loblolly pine, concentration of bacteria, and the wounding procedures of target explants were investigated. The expression of foreign gene was confirmed by the ability of mature zygotic embryos to produce calli in the presence of kanamycin, by histochemical assays of GUS activity, by PCR analysis, and by Southern blot. The successful expression of the GUS gene in different families of loblolly pine suggests that this transformation system is probably useful for the production of the genetically modified conifers. (+info)
Cadmium-induced changes in antioxidative systems, hydrogen peroxide content, and differentiation in Scots pine roots.
To investigate whether Cd induces common plant defense pathways or unspecific necrosis, the temporal sequence of physiological reactions, including hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production, changes in ascorbate-glutathione-related antioxidant systems, secondary metabolism (peroxidases, phenolics, and lignification), and developmental changes, was characterized in roots of hydroponically grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. Cd (50 microM, 6 h) initially increased superoxide dismutase, inhibited the systems involved in H(2)O(2) removal (glutathione/glutathione reductase, catalase [CAT], and ascorbate peroxidase [APX]), and caused H(2)O(2) accumulation. Elongation of the roots was completely inhibited within 12 h. After 24 h, glutathione reductase activities recovered to control levels; APX and CAT were stimulated by factors of 5.5 and 1.5. Cell death was increased. After 48 h, nonspecific peroxidases and lignification were increased, and APX and CAT activities were decreased. Histochemical analysis showed that soluble phenolics accumulated in the cytosol of Cd-treated roots but lignification was confined to newly formed protoxylem elements, which were found in the region of the root tip that normally constitutes the elongation zone. Roots exposed to 5 microM Cd showed less pronounced responses and only a small decrease in the elongation rate. These results suggest that in cells challenged by Cd at concentrations exceeding the detoxification capacity, H(2)O(2) accumulated because of an imbalance of redox systems. This, in turn, may have triggered the developmental program leading to xylogenesis. In conclusion, Cd did not cause necrotic injury in root tips but appeared to expedite differentiation, thus leading to accelerated aging. (+info)
Ectomycorrhizal fungal associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a hot spring in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming.
Molecular methods and comparisons of fruiting patterns (i.e., presence or absence of fungal fruiting bodies in different soil types) were used to determine ectomycorrhizal (EM) associates of Pinus contorta in soils associated with a thermal soil classified as ultra-acidic to extremely acidic (pH 2 to 4). EM were sampled by obtaining 36 soil cores from six paired plots (three cores each) of both thermal soils and forest soils directly adjacent to the thermal area. Fruiting bodies (mushrooms) were collected for molecular identification and to compare fruiting body (above-ground) diversity to below-ground diversity. Our results indicate (i) that there were significant decreases in both the level of EM infection (130 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in forest soil; 68 +/- 22 EM root tips/core in thermal soil) and EM fungal species richness (4.0 +/- 0.5 species/core in forest soil; 1.2 +/- 0.2 species/core in thermal soil) in soils associated with the thermal feature; (ii) that the EM mycota of thermal soils was comprised of a small set of dominant species and included very few rare species, while the EM mycota of forest soils contained a few dominant species and several rare EM fungal species; (iii) that Dermocybe phoenecius and a species of Inocybe, which was rare in forest soils, were the dominant EM fungal species in thermal soils; (iv) that other than the single Inocybe species, there was no overlap in the EM fungal communities of the forest and thermal soils; and (v) that the fungal species forming the majority of the above-ground fruiting structures in thermal soils (Pisolithus tinctorius, which is commonly used in remediation of acid soils) was not detected on a single EM root tip in either type of soil. Thus, P. tinctorius may have a different role in these thermal soils. Our results suggest that this species may not perform well in remediation of all acid soils and that factors such as pH, soil temperature, and soil chemistry may interact to influence EM fungal community structure. In addition, we identified at least one new species with potential for use in remediation of hot acidic soil. (+info)
Bayesian methods for quantitative trait loci mapping based on model selection: approximate analysis using the Bayesian information criterion.
We describe an approximate method for the analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on model selection from multiple regression models with trait values regressed on marker genotypes, using a modification of the easily calculated Bayesian information criterion to estimate the posterior probability of models with various subsets of markers as variables. The BIC-delta criterion, with the parameter delta increasing the penalty for additional variables in a model, is further modified to incorporate prior information, and missing values are handled by multiple imputation. Marginal probabilities for model sizes are calculated, and the posterior probability of nonzero model size is interpreted as the posterior probability of existence of a QTL linked to one or more markers. The method is demonstrated on analysis of associations between wood density and markers on two linkage groups in Pinus radiata. Selection bias, which is the bias that results from using the same data to both select the variables in a model and estimate the coefficients, is shown to be a problem for commonly used non-Bayesian methods for QTL mapping, which do not average over alternative possible models that are consistent with the data. (+info)
An aquaglyceroporin is abundantly expressed early in the development of the suspensor and the embryo proper of loblolly pine.
In contrast to angiosperms, pines and other gymnosperms form well-developed suspensors in somatic embryogenic cultures. This creates a useful system to study suspensor biology. In a study of gene expression during the early stages of conifer embryogenesis, we identified a transcript, PtNIP1;1, that is abundant in immature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) zygotic and somatic embryos, but is undetectable in later-stage embryos, megagametophytes, and roots, stems, and needles from 1 year-old seedlings. Analysis of PtNIP1;1 transcript in embryo proper and suspensor tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction suggests preferential expression in the suspensor. Based on comparisons of derived amino acid sequences, PtNIP1;1 belongs to the nodulin-like members of the major intrinsic protein superfamily branch of the aquaporin (major intrinsic protein) superfamily. Through heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) fps1(-) mutant, PtNIP1;1 has been shown to be an active aquaglyceroporin. (+info)
Anatolian tree rings and a new chronology for the east Mediterranean Bronze-Iron Ages.
We report an extensive program of high-precision radiocarbon dating to establish the best date for a floating 1599-year Anatolian tree ring chronology that spans the later third millennium B.C. through the earlier first millennium B.C. This chronology is directly associated with a number of key sites and ancient personages. A previously suggested dating is withdrawn and is replaced by a robust new date fix 22 (+4 or -7) years earlier. These new radiocarbon wiggle-matched dates offer a unique independent resource for establishing the precise chronology of the ancient Near East and Aegean and help resolve, among others, a long-standing debate in favor of the so-called Middle Mesopotamian chronology. (+info)