(1/99) A novel role for cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels in lung liquid homeostasis in sheep.
1. Sheep lungs were artificially perfused in situ with warmed whole oxygenated sheep blood. The airspaces of the lungs were filled with liquid containing an impermeant tracer, to allow measurement of the rate of net transepithelial liquid movement under various conditions. 2. Dichlorobenzamil (1.5 x 10-5 M), a blocker of cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels, inhibited the resting absorption of lung liquid in sheep aged 6 months (n = 5) (from -36.47 +/- 4.62 to -4.36 +/- 5.27 ml h-1, means +/- s.e.m.; P < 0.005, paired t test). Amiloride (10-4 M), a blocker of epithelial sodium channels, had no additive effect to that of dichlorobenzamil. 3. In the lungs of sheep aged 6 months (n = 4), amiloride (10-4 M) partially inhibited the resting absorption of liquid (from -35.21 +/- 8.57 to -11.05 +/- 4.91 ml h-1; P < 0.05, one-tailed paired t test), and dichlorobenzamil (1.5 x 10-5 M) exerted an additive effect to that of amiloride resulting in secretion at +6.29 +/- 3.05 ml h-1 (P < 0. 01, paired t test). 4. In the lungs of sheep aged 6 weeks (n = 3), amiloride (10-4 M) also inhibited the resting absorption of liquid (from -26.36 +/- 14.05 to -5.17 +/- 8.27 ml h-1; P < 0.05, one-tailed paired t test); however, dichlorobenzamil (1.5 x 10-5 M) did not exert an additive effect to that of amiloride. 5. In the lungs of sheep aged 6 months (n = 4), amiloride (10-4 M) partially inhibited the resting absorption of liquid (from -35.70 +/- 8.58 to -6.79 +/- 4.28 ml h-1; P < 0.05, paired t test), and pimozide (1.5 x 10-4 M), another blocker of cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels, also exerted an additive effect to that of amiloride, resulting in secretion of lung liquid at +15.36 +/- 9.14 ml h-1 (P < 0.05, paired t test). 6. We conclude that cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels mediate a component of lung liquid absorption in sheep aged 6 months (but not in sheep aged 6 weeks), and that a mechanism for lung liquid secretion (present in fetuses) is retained at 6 months of age. (+info)
(2/99) D-amphetamine disaggregates brain polysomes via a dopaminergic mechanism.
Brain polysomes are disaggregated in rats given moderate to large doses of d-amphetamine sulfate; this response is rapid in onset, lasts for at least 4-6 hr, and varies with the age of the animal. Pretreatment with a dopamine receptor blocking agent, haloperidol or pimozide, blocks the amphetamine-induced disaggregation. (+info)
(3/99) Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.
To test the hypothesis that a transient increase in prolactin (PRL) secretion prior to puberty can result in an alteration of the adult prostate, male rats were exposed from postnatal Days (PND) 22 to 32 to compounds that increase PRL secretion. These compounds included pimozide (a dopamine antagonist), estradiol-17beta, and bisphenol A (a monomer of polycarbonate plastics reported to have weak estrogenic activity). During dosing, pimozide (PIM), bisphenol A (BPA), and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) stimulated an increased secretion of PRL. At 120 days of age, the lateral prostate weight was increased in the PIM and BPA groups as compared to the vehicle-injected controls. Examination of the prostates revealed inflammation in the lateral lobes of all treated groups. Results of a myeloperoxidase assay, a quantitative assay to assess acute inflammation, indicated an increase in the percentage of males with neutrophil infiltrate in the lateral prostates of the PIM and E(2) treatment groups compared to their respective controls. The histological evaluations of these tissues confirmed an increase in luminal polymorphonuclear cells and interstitial mononuclear cells of the lateral prostates in all treatment groups. Administration of the dopamine agonist, bromocriptine, to the estradiol-implanted males from PND 22 to 32 reversed the induction of lateral prostate inflammation by estradiol, suggesting that PRL was necessary for the inflammatory effect. This study demonstrates that prepubertal exposures to compounds that increase PRL secretion, albeit through different mechanisms, can increase the incidence of lateral prostate inflammation in the adult. (+info)
(4/99) Induction of a sodium ion influx by progesterone in human spermatozoa.
In human spermatozoa, progesterone (P(4)) induces a depolarization of the plasma membrane, a rapid calcium (Ca(2+)) influx, and a chloride efflux. The sodium ion (Na(+)) was partly responsible for the P(4)-induced depolarizing effect but was not required for calcium influx. We used fluorescent probes for spectrofluorometry to investigate whether P(4) induced a Na(+) influx and whether voltage-operated channels were involved in Na(+) and/or Ca(2+) entries. We found that 10 microM P(4) significantly increased intracellular Na(+) concentration from 17.8 +/- 2.0 mM to 27.2 +/- 1. 6 mM (P < 0.001). Prior incubation of spermatozoa with 10 microM flunarizine, a Na(+) and Ca(2+) voltage-dependent channel blocker, inhibited the sodium influx induced by 10 microM P(4) by 84.6 +/- 15.4%. The Ca(2+) influx induced by 10 microM P(4) was also significantly inhibited in a Na(+)-containing medium by 10 microM flunarizine or 10 microM pimozide (P < 0.01). In contrast, flunarizine had no inhibitory effect on the Ca(2+) influx induced by 10 microM P(4) in spermatozoa incubated in Na(+)-depleted medium. The P(4)-promoted acrosome reaction (AR) was significantly higher when spermatozoa were incubated in Na(+)-containing medium as compared to Na(+)-depleted medium. These data demonstrate that P(4) stimulates a Na(+) influx that could be involved in the AR completion. They also suggest that voltage-dependent Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels are implicated in P(4)-mediated signaling pathway in human spermatozoa. (+info)
(5/99) Inhibition by various antipsychotic drugs of the G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels expressed in xenopus oocytes.
To investigate the effects of various chemical classes of antipsychotic drugs: haloperidol, thioridazine, pimozide and clozapine, on the G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels, we carried out Xenopus oocyte functional assays with GIRK1 and GIRK2 mRNAs or GIRK1 and GIRK4 mRNAs. In oocytes co-injected with GIRK1 and GIRK2 mRNAs, application of each of the various antipsychotic drugs immediately caused a reduction of inward currents through the basally active GIRK channels. These responses were not observed in the presence of 3 mM Ba(2+), which blocks the GIRK channels. In addition, in uninjected oocytes, none of the drugs tested produced any significant current response. These results indicate that all the antipsychotic drugs tested inhibited the brain-type GIRK1/2 heteromultimeric channels. Furthermore, similar results were obtained in oocytes co-injected with GIRK1 and GIRK4 mRNAs, indicating that the antipsychotic drugs also inhibited the cardiac-type GIRK1/4 heteromultimeric channels. All the drugs tested inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, both types of GIRK channels with varying degrees of potency and effectiveness at micromolar concentrations. Only pimozide caused slight inhibition of these channels at nanomolar concentrations. We conclude that the various antipsychotic drugs acted as inhibitors at the brain-type and cardiac-type GIRK channels. Our results suggest that inhibition of both types of GIRK channels by these drugs underlies some of the side effects, in particular seizures and sinus tachycardia, observed in clinical practice. (+info)
(6/99) Characterization of intracellular Ca(2+) increase in response to progesterone and cyclic nucleotides in mouse spermatozoa.
Rises in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) caused by progesterone, an inducer of the acrosome reaction, or by cyclic nucleotides, possible second messengers, were investigated by Ca(2+) imaging of the head of individual mouse sperm. Progesterone induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise in a dose-dependent manner (4-40 microM), primarily in the postacrosomal region. For 20-microM progesterone, Ca(2+) responses occurred in 42% of sperm, separated into two types: transient type (60% of responding cells; duration, 1-1.5 min; mean amplitude, 335 nM) and prolonged type (40%; >3 min; 730 nM). Prolonged responses required higher doses of progesterone, and their occurrence was enhanced significantly by preincubation for 2-4 h as compared with transient responses. 8-Bromo-cGMP (0.3-3 mM) induced a [Ca(2+)](i) rise more effectively than did 8-bromo-cAMP. For 1-mM 8-bromo-cGMP, 90% of cells exhibited transient Ca(2+) responses (approximately 1 min; 220 nM), independently of the preincubation time. In Ca(2+)-free medium, most sperm showed no Ca(2+) response to progesterone and 8-bromo-cGMP. Pimozide, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, completely blocked prolonged responses and partially inhibited transient responses. These results suggest that progesterone activates at least two distinct Ca(2+) influx pathways, with fast or slow inactivation kinetics, and some sperm show both types of response. A cyclic nucleotide-mediated process could participate in the progesterone-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. (+info)
(7/99) Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated sperm binding to the human zona is mediated by a calcium influx.
The mechanism by which GnRH increases sperm-zona pellucida binding in humans was investigated in this study. We tested whether GnRH increases sperm-zona binding in Ca(2+)-free medium and in the presence of Ca(2+) channel antagonists. We also examined the GnRH effect on the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Sperm treatment with GnRH increased sperm-zona binding 300% but only when Ca(2+) was present in the medium. In Ca(2+)-free medium or in the presence of 400 nM nifedipine, 80 microM diltiazem, or 50 microM verapamil, GnRH did not influence sperm-zona binding. GnRH increased the [Ca(2+)](i) in the sperm in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum effect was reached with 75 nM GnRH. The GnRH-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was fast and transient, from a basal [Ca(2+)](i) of 413 +/- 22 nM to a peak value of 797 +/- 24 nM. The GnRH-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was entirely due to a Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular medium because the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) was blocked by the Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and by the Ca(2+) channel antagonists nifedipine and diltiazem. These antagonists, however, were not able to inhibit the progesterone-activated Ca(2+) influx. On the contrary, T-type calcium channel antagonists pimozide and mibefradil did not affect GnRH-activated Ca(2+) influx but inhibited the progesterone-activated Ca(2+) influx. Finally, the GnRH-induced Ca(2+) influx was blocked by two specific GnRH antagonists, Ac-D-Nal(1)-Cl-D-Phe(2)-3-Pyr-D-Ala(3)-Arg(5)-D-Glu(AA)(6)-GnRH and Ac-(3,4)-dehydro-Pro(1),-p-fluoro-D-Phe(2), D-Trp(3,6)-GnRH. These results suggest that GnRH increases sperm-zona binding via an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) through T-type, voltage-operated calcium channels. (+info)
(8/99) Metoclopramide and pimozide in Parkinson's disease and levodopa-induced dyskinesias.
Metoclopramide is an antiemetic drug which occasionally produced acute dystonic reactions. Although known to interfere with central dopamine mechanisms, it is frequently used in Parkinson's disease to prevent levodopa-induced nausea and vomiting. In this study metoclopramide did not increase Parkinsonism or reduce levodopa-induced involuntary movements in patients with Parkinson's disease. Pimozide, by contrast, increased Parkinsonism and reduced involuntary movements. The capacity of metoclopramide to produce acute dyskinesias while being apparently free of Parkinsonism effects is pharmacologically unique and differentiates this drug from the phenothiazines and butyrophenones. (+info)