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(1/446) Eukaryotic initiation factor 4GII (eIF4GII), but not eIF4GI, cleavage correlates with inhibition of host cell protein synthesis after human rhinovirus infection.

For many members of the Picornaviridae family, infection of cells results in a shutoff of host protein synthesis. For rhinoviruses and enteroviruses, the shutoff has been explained in part by the cleavage of eukaryotic initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI), a component of the cap-binding protein complex eIF4F. The cleavage of eIF4GI is mediated by the virus-specific proteinase 2Apro and results in inhibition of cap-dependent, but not cap-independent, translation. The inhibition of host protein synthesis after infection with human rhinovirus 14 (HRV-14) lags behind the cleavage of eIF4GI. Recently, we discovered a functional homolog of eIF4GI, termed eIF4GII, and showed that cleavage of eIF4GII coincides with the shutoff of host cell protein synthesis after poliovirus infection (Gradi et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:11089-11094, 1998). We wished to determine whether eIF4GII cleavage kinetics could also explain the lack of correlation between the kinetics of eIF4GI cleavage and the shutoff of host protein synthesis after rhinovirus infection. In this study, we examined the correlation between human rhinovirus-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis and cleavage of eIF4GI and eIF4GII. In HRV-14-infected HeLa cells, almost no intact eIF4GI could be detected by 4 h postinfection, while only 4% of eIF4GII was cleaved at this time. By 6 h, however, 67% of eIF4GII was cleaved, and this cleavage coincided with a significant (60%) decline of host translation. These results suggest that cleavage of both eIF4GI and eIF4GII is required for HRV-mediated inhibition of host cell protein synthesis and that the cleavage of eIF4GII is the rate-limiting step in the shutoff of host cell protein synthesis after rhinovirus infection.  (+info)

(2/446) Rhinovirus infection induces expression of its own receptor intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) via increased NF-kappaB-mediated transcription.

Virus infections, the majority of which are rhinovirus infections, are the major cause of asthma exacerbations. Treatment is unsatisfactory, and the pathogenesis unclear. Lower airway lymphocyte and eosinophil recruitment and activation are strongly implicated, but the mechanisms regulating these processes are unknown. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has a central role in inflammatory cell recruitment to the airways in asthma and is the cellular receptor for 90% of rhinoviruses. We hypothesized that rhinovirus infection of lower airway epithelium might induce ICAM-1 expression, promoting both inflammatory cell infiltration and rhinovirus infection. We therefore investigated the effect of rhinovirus infection on respiratory epithelial cell ICAM-1 expression and regulation to identify new targets for treatment of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. We observed that rhinovirus infection of primary bronchial epithelial cells and the A549 respiratory epithelial cell line increased ICAM-1 cell surface expression over 12- and 3-fold, respectively. We then investigated the mechanisms of this induction in A549 cells and observed rhinovirus-induction of ICAM-1 promoter activity and ICAM-1 mRNA transcription. Rhinovirus induction of ICAM-1 promoter activity was critically dependent upon up-regulation of NF-kappaB proteins binding to the -187/-178 NF-kappaB binding site on the ICAM-1 promoter. The principal components of the rhinovirus-induced binding proteins were NF-kappaB p65 homo- or heterodimers. These studies identify ICAM-1 and NF-kappaB as new targets for the development of therapeutic interventions for virus-induced asthma exacerbations.  (+info)

(3/446) Rhinovirus-mediated changes in airway smooth muscle responsiveness: induced autocrine role of interleukin-1beta.

An important interplay exists between specific viral respiratory pathogens, most commonly rhinovirus (RV), and altered airway responsiveness in the development and exacerbations of asthma. Given that RV infection reportedly induces the release of various cytokines in different cell types and that the reported effects of RV on airway smooth muscle (ASM) responsiveness are highly comparable to those obtained in ASM exposed to the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1beta, this study examined whether RV (serotype 16)-mediated pertubations in ASM responsiveness are mechanistically coupled to altered induced expression and action of IL-1beta in RV-exposed isolated rabbit and human ASM tissue and cultured cells. Relative to control tissues, ASM inoculated with RV exhibited significantly increased maximal isometric contractility to ACh (P < 0.01) and attenuated relaxation to isoproterenol (P < 0. 005). In extended studies, we found that 1) the RV-induced changes in ASM responsiveness were ablated by pretreating the tissues with the IL-1 recombinant human receptor antagonist; 2) in contrast to their respective controls, RV-inoculated ASM tissue and cultured cells exhibited progressively induced expression of IL-1beta mRNA and elaboration of IL-1beta protein at 6 and 24 h after viral exposure; and 3) the latter effect of RV was inhibited in the presence of a monoclonal antibody to intercellular adhesion molecule-1, the endogenous receptor for most RV. Collectively, these observations provide new evidence demonstrating that "pro-asthmatic-like" pertubations in agonist responsiveness elicited in RV-exposed ASM are largely attributed to the induced autologous expression and autocrine action of IL-1beta in the virus-infected ASM.  (+info)

(4/446) Infection of human respiratory submucosal glands with rhinovirus: effects on cytokine and ICAM-1 production.

To further understand the early biochemical events that occur in infected surface epithelium, we developed for the first time a model in which a respiratory submucosal gland cell population can be infected with rhinovirus (RV). Viral infection was confirmed by demonstrating with PCR that viral titers in supernatants and lysates from infected cells increased with time. Infection by RV14 upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA, the major RV receptor, on submucosal gland cells, and it increased production of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in supernatants. Antibodies to ICAM-1 inhibited RV infection of submucosal gland cells and decreased the production of cytokines after RV infection. Both IL-1alpha and IL-1beta upregulated ICAM-1 mRNA expression and increased susceptibility to RV infection, whereas other cytokines failed to alter ICAM-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore, neutralizing antibodies to IL-1alpha and IL-1beta significantly decreased the viral titers in supernatants and ICAM-1 mRNA expression after RV infection, but a neutralizing antibody to tumor necrosis factor-alpha was without effect. These findings suggest that respiratory submucosal gland cells play an important role in the initial stages of inflammation and provide useful insights into the pathogenesis of RV infection.  (+info)

(5/446) Rhinovirus infections in myelosuppressed adult blood and marrow transplant recipients.

Scant data are available on the clinical significance of rhinovirus infections in immunocompromised patients. We reviewed the clinical courses of and outcomes for 22 myelosuppressed adult blood and marrow transplant recipients with rhinovirus infections who were hospitalized at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston) from January 1992 to January 1997. In 15 patients (68%), illnesses remained confined to the upper respiratory tract. Seven patients (32%) developed fatal pneumonia. These patients had profound respiratory failure a mean of 12 days (range, 3-21 days) after the onset of symptoms. In six of these seven cases, rhinovirus was isolated before death from a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid specimen and/or an endotracheal aspirate. Five patients underwent autopsies, one of which revealed disseminated aspergillosis and four of which revealed interstitial pneumonitis and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome and no other organisms. In conclusion, rhinovirus infections may be associated with considerable pulmonary-related morbidity and mortality in severely myelosuppressed immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

(6/446) Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses.

The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.  (+info)

(7/446) Comparison of classic and molecular approaches for the identification of untypeable enteroviruses.

Members of the family Picornaviridae are the most common viruses infecting humans, and species in several genera also infect a wide variety of other mammals. Picornaviruses have traditionally been classified by antigenic type, based on a serum neutralization assay. However, this method is time-consuming and labor-intensive, is sensitive to virus aggregation and antigenic variation, and requires a large number of antisera to identify all serotypes, even when antiserum pools are used. We developed generic reverse transcription (RT)-PCR primers that will amplify all human enterovirus serotypes, as well as many rhinoviruses and other picornaviruses, and used RT-PCR amplification of the VP1 gene and amplicon sequencing to identify enteroviruses that were refractory to typing by neutralization with pooled antisera. Enterovirus serotypes determined by sequencing were confirmed by neutralization with monospecific antisera. Of 55 isolates tested, 49 were of known enterovirus serotypes, two were rhinoviruses, and four were clearly picornaviruses but did not match any known picornavirus sequence. All four untyped picornaviruses were closely related to one another in sequence, suggesting that they are of the same serotype. RT-PCR, coupled with amplicon sequencing, is a simple and rapid method for the typing and classification of picornaviruses and may lead to the identification of many new picornavirus serotypes.  (+info)

(8/446) Rhinovirus infection induces major histocompatibility complex class I and costimulatory molecule upregulation on respiratory epithelial cells.

Human respiratory epithelial cells may act as antigen-presenting cells during respiratory viral infections. In addition to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, antigen presentation requires participation of costimulatory molecules. Here the authors investigated class I and class II antigens and B7-1 and B7-2 costimulatory molecule expression in human A549 pulmonary epithelial cells and primary bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) at baseline and after rhinovirus infection. Constitutive expression of MHC class I and B7-1 molecules was observed on both cell types. MHC class I molecules were up-regulated by rhinovirus infection, while B7-1 was up-regulated only on A549 cells. B7-2 molecules were constitutively expressed at a low level and were up-regulated by rhinovirus only on HBECs. Rhinovirus induction of antigen-presenting molecule expression on A549 cells was accompanied by cellular activation in terms of induction of release of the chemokines RANTES and Groalpha. These data show that respiratory epithelium expresses full antigen-presentation machinery and that rhinovirus infection up-regulates this expression.  (+info)