Multi-institutional randomized clinical study on the comparative effects of intracavital chemotherapy alone versus immunotherapy alone versus immunochemotherapy for malignant effusion.
The current prospective randomized study was designed to compare the effects of intracavitary (i.c.) chemotherapy vs immunotherapy vs immunochemotherapy for malignant effusion. Between 1992 and 1995, a total of 42 patients with malignant effusion were registered, and 41 patients were eligible for statistical analysis. The primary diseases of the eligible patients included 27 gastric, four colorectal, four pancreatic, three lung, two liver and one oesophageal cancers. The patients with malignant effusion were randomly assigned into one of three i.c. therapeutic regimens: chemotherapy alone with weekly injection of anticancer agents (ACAs: cisplatin, mitomycin-C, adriamycin, etc.) (Group A, n = 13); immunotherapy alone with weekly injection of streptococcal preparation OK-432 (Group B, n = 14); or immunochemotherapy with ACAs and OK-432 (Group C, n = 14). The response of the effusion, patient survival and the kinetics of cytokines in the effusion were compared. There were no differences in the patients' backgrounds. The side-effects of the regimens included pain, anorexia, fever, leucopenia and anaemia and there were no differences in their incidence among the three groups. One patient died after cisplatin (CDDP) administration in Group A. Cytologic examination revealed that tumour cells in the effusion disappeared in 23% of Group A cases, 36% of Group B cases and 36% of Group C cases. The malignant effusion did not disappear in any of the Group A cases; however, the effusion disappeared in 29% of Group B cases and 43% of Group C cases (P = 0.03, Group A vs Group C). Furthermore, the 50% survival period was 1.6 months for Group A, 2.4 months for Group B and 3.5 months for Group C. The 6-month survival rate was 7% for Group A, 6% for Group B and 34% for Group C, and the 1-year survival rate was 0%, 0% and 17% respectively (P = 0.048, Group A vs Group C by the log-rank test). The analysis of the cytokine kinetics revealed a prominent increase in the level of interleukin-6 in the effusion in Group C. These results suggest that i.c. immunochemotherapy with OK-432 and ACAs may be more beneficial than i.c. chemotherapy alone or immunotherapy alone. (+info)
Sclerosing treatment of lymphangiomas with OK-432.
Over a period of seven years, 15 patients (aged from birth to 15 years; median 22 months) with lymphangioma were treated with OK-432; they received a mean of three injections each. Ten received OK-432 as first line treatment; five were treated after surgery (three had a residual lymphangioma after incomplete removal and two had a late recurrence). OK-432 proved to be effective for primitive as well as for residual and recurrent lymphangioma. Seven cases were macrocystic; complete regression was obtained in all. Five cases were microcystic: two had more than 50% regression, and three less than 50%. Three cases were mixed, with both large and microscopic cysts: one had more than 50% regression, and two less than 50%. These last two cases underwent surgery after the sclerosing treatment. The results obtained were excellent in 100% of macrocystic cases; a shrinkage in size was obtained in all microcystic cases. OK-432 is therefore proposed as a first line option for treatment of lymphangiomas. (+info)
Management of orbital lymphangioma using intralesional injection of OK-432.
AIM: To treat orbital lymphangioma with an intralesional injection of OK-432 (group A Streptococcus pyogenes of human origin). METHOD: A 14 year old boy had a right orbital cystic lymphangioma. The visual acuity in the eye was 20/28. In an initial treatment, 0.02 mg of OK-432, was injected into the tumour after aspiration of the fluid contents, but no effect was seen. The second treatment was performed with 0.04 mg of OK-432. RESULT: 4 months later, the lesion had totally shrunk to fibrous tissue. The side effects were fever, a local inflammatory reaction lasting 3 days, and increased intraocular pressure, which was managed by draining the fluid contents. Visual acuity improved to 20/15, and the visual field defect and restriction of eye movement seen before treatment disappeared. No recurrence was noted 1 year after treatment. CONCLUSION: An intralesional injection of OK-432 shrunk the lymphangioma without functional disturbance and scar in the facial skin. OK-432 may be useful for orbital lymphangioma, but further studies are still warranted to determine efficacy, complications, and the optimal dose for safe treatment. (+info)
Unresectable advanced gastric cancer effectively treated by combined chemo-immunotherapy: a report of two cases.
We have experienced two cases of unresectable advanced gastric cancer effectively treated by chemo-immunotherapy. One case was of a 68-year-old male patient diagnosed as having inoperable advanced gastric cancer with liver and lung metastasis. This patient was treated by combined chemo-immunotherapy of MMC 10 mg/M, 5'-DFUR 800 mg/day and OK-432 5 KE/2W. At 6 months later, a computed tomography (CT) scan and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series revealed that the metastatic liver tumors and stomach lesion were remarkably decreased in size, and endoscopic biopsy confirmed no cancer cells in the stomach lesion. Moreover, the metastatic lung tumor had disappeared on chest X-ray. The other case was of a 68-year-old female patient with unresectable advanced gastric cancer treated by combined administration of MMC 10 mg/M, 5-FU 200 mg/day and OK-432 5 KE/2W. At 2 months after commencing the treatment, there was a reduction in the serum carcinoembryonal antigen (CEA) level. At 6 months later, the CEA had decreased to normal, the primary and metastatic sites had completely disappeared on CT, and endoscopic biopsy confirmed no cancer cells in the stomach lesion. This patient has survived to date for 5 years and 6 months after commencing the treatment. These results suggested that combined chemo-immunotherapy of MMC, antimetabolite, and OK-432 was an effective treatment for unresectable advanced gastric cancer. (+info)
Biochemical modulation of 5-fluorouracil with a streptococcal preparation, OK-432, against murine colon-26 carcinoma.
Conventional therapy for colorectal carcinoma using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) has shown limited antitumor action. The purpose of our study was to investigate synergistic antitumor effects of the streptococcal preparation of OK-432 and 5-FU, and to elucidate the mechanisms of interaction between the 2 agents in mice. Biochemical modulation of OK-432 and 5-FU were determined in vivo against colon-26 carcinoma. The concentration of 5-FU and its metabolites, and the activity of thymidylate synthase and thymidine kinase, respectively, were measured using cytosolic extracts of the tumors. Combination treatment with OK-432 produced a significant increase in intratumor 5-FU and 5-FU in RNA (F-RNA) concentrations, increased the thymidylate synthetase inhibition rate, and decreased thymidine kinase activity, as compared with the results observed in the control mice. These additive antitumor effects are obtained by use of the 2 agents; the mechanism of action is considered to be the suppression of both the de novo and the salvage pathway for DNA synthesis, along with the suppression of RNA synthesis. (+info)
Activity of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1beta isoforms is differently affected by the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1/2A.
Phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes are known to control the activity of several transcription factors. The nutrition-dependent expression of sucrase-isomaltase and Na+/glucose co-transporter 1, two proteins implicated in the intestinal absorption of glucose, has been shown to be closely related to modifications of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) activity. This study was conducted to determine whether phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes could control HNF1 activity. We show that expression of the gene encoding sucrase-isomaltase is inhibited in the enterocytic Caco-2 clone TC7 by okadaic acid at a concentration that is known to inhibit protein phosphatases 1/2A and that does not affect cell viability. At the same concentration, phosphorylation of the HNF1alpha and HNF1beta isoforms is greatly enhanced and their DNA-binding capacity is decreased. The phosphorylation state of HNF1beta isoforms directly affects their DNA-binding capacity. In contrast, the decreased DNA-binding activity of the HNF1alpha isoforms, which was observed after the inhibition of protein phosphatases 1/2A, is due to a net decrease in their total cellular and nuclear amounts. Such an effect results from a decrease in both the HNF1alpha mRNA levels and the half-life of the protein. This is the first evidence for the implication of protein phosphatases 1/2A in the control of the activity of HNF1 isoforms. Moreover, these results emphasize a physiological role for the balance between phosphatases and kinases in the nutrition-dependent regulation of HNF1-controlled genes. (+info)
The prognostic advantage of preoperative intratumoral injection of OK-432 for gastric cancer patients.
To investigate, by a multi-institutional randomized trial, the prognostic significance of the augmentation of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) by preoperative intratumoral injection of OK-432 (OK-432 it), a bacterial biological response modifier, in patients with gastric cancer. The 10-year survival and disease-free survival were examined and analysis of the factors showing survival benefit was performed. 370 patients who had undergone curative resection of gastric cancer were enrolled in this study and followed up for 10 years postoperatively. Patients were randomized into either an OK-432 it group or a control group. Ten Klinishe Einheit (KE) of OK-432 was endoscopically injected at 1 to 2 weeks before the operation in the OK-432 it group. Both groups received the same adjuvant chemoimmunotherapy consisting of a bolus injection of mitomycin C (0.4 mg kg(-1) i.v.) and administration of tegafur and OK-432 from postoperative day 14 up to 1 year later. Tegafur (600 mg day(-1)) was given orally and OK-432 (5 KE/2 weeks) was injected intradermally for a maintenance therapy. The TILs grades in resected tumour specimens and presence of metastasis and metastatic pattern in dissected lymph nodes were examined. Multivariate analysis was performed to determine the efficacy of OK-432 it on prognostic factors. All patients were followed up for 10 years. The overall 5- and 10-year survival rates and disease-free survival rates of the OK-432 it group were not significantly higher than those of the control group. However, OK-432 it significantly increased the 5- and 10-year survival rates of patients with stage IIIA + IIIB, moderate lymph node metastasis (pN2), and positive TILs. OK-432 it was most effective at prolonging the survival of patients who had both positive TILs and lymph node metastasis. The OK-432 it group with positive TILs showed a significant decrease in metastatic lymph node frequency and in the number of lymph node micro- metastatic foci when compared to the control group. This study showed that only one time preoperative OK-432 it, particularly when it triggers TILs, is effective for reduction of regional lymph node metastasis. OK-432 it probably acts partly by eliminating micro-metastatic foci in lymph nodes. Preoperative intratumoral injection of OK-432 is technically very easy and has no serious adverse effects, so it is a promising form of neoadjuvant immunotherapy for advanced gastric cancer. (+info)
Antenatal ultrasonographic features of fetal giant hemangiolymphangioma.
A giant multiseptate cystic mass covering the whole left hemitruncus of fetus was detected by ultrasonography at 23 weeks of gestation. Color and pulsed Doppler ultrasonography revealed marked blood flow in the mass. No other anomaly or chromosomal abnormality was recognized. Although the cystic lesion increased in size with advancing gestation a male infant weighing 4096 g was delivered in good condition at term. Histological examination of the lesion demonstrated hemangiolymphangioma with hyperplasia of both capillaries and lymphoducts. The infant was treated effectively with OK-432 and interferon-alfa-2a. (+info)