Evaluation of pulmonary volumetric morphometry at the light and electron microscopy level in several species of passerine birds.
The lungs of 3 small passerine species, having similar body mass but different diurnal activity patterns, were analysed morphometrically to assess the relationship between diurnal activity and pulmonary volumetry at the light and electron microscope levels. The percentage volumes of the major lung and exchange tissue components of the 3 species--an aerial insectivore, a foliage gleaner/nectarivore and a ground forager--were strikingly similar, and consistent with literature values for other passerine species. The only significant difference found was exchange tissue plasma volume and pulmonary haematocrit, with the ground-foraging, low activity Malurus splendens having significantly lower values than the other 2 species. This may indicate that cardiovascular parameters are more important determinants of metabolic activity in small passerines than aspects of pulmonary anatomy. (+info)
2,3 diphosphoglycerate in Parkinson's disease.
The red cell 2,3 DPG, the most important factor for oxygen delivery in the tissues, was found to be increased in Parkinsonism patients compared with controls. The aging process seems not to be a factor in the increased 2,3 DPG concentration. Other factors relevant to raised 2,3 DPG level such as physical activity, increased oxygen requirements, and metabolic changes are discussed. (+info)
Lactate kinetics at rest and during exercise in lambs with aortopulmonary shunts.
In a previous study [G. C. M. Beaufort-Krol, J. Takens, M. C. Molenkamp, G. B. Smid, J. J. Meuzelaar, W. G. Zijlstra, and J. R. G. Kuipers. Am. J. Physiol. 275 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 44): H1503-H1512, 1998], a lower systemic O2 supply was found in lambs with aortopulmonary left-to-right shunts. To determine whether the lower systemic O2 supply results in increased anaerobic metabolism, we used [1-13C]lactate to investigate lactate kinetics in eight 7-wk-old lambs with shunts and eight control lambs, at rest and during moderate exercise [treadmill; 50% of peak O2 consumption (VO2)]. The mean left-to-right shunt fraction in the shunt lambs was 55 +/- 3% of pulmonary blood flow. Arterial lactate concentrations and the rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) of lactate were similar in shunt and control lambs, both at rest (lactate: 1, 201 +/- 76 vs. 1,214 +/- 151 micromol/l; Ra = Rd: 12.97 +/- 1.71 vs. 12.55 +/- 1.25 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and during a similar relative workload. We found a positive correlation between Ra and systemic blood flow, O2 supply, and VO2 in both groups of lambs. In conclusion, shunt lambs have similar lactate kinetics as do control lambs, both at rest and during moderate exercise at a similar fraction of their peak VO2, despite a lower systemic O2 supply. (+info)
The physiological strain index applied to heat-stressed rats.
A physiological strain index (PSI) based on heart rate (HR) and rectal temperature (Tre) was recently suggested to evaluate exercise-heat stress in humans. The purpose of this study was to adjust PSI for rats and to evaluate this index at different levels of heat acclimation and training. The corrections of HR and Tre to modify the index for rats are as follows: PSI = 5 (Tre t - Tre 0). (41.5 - Tre 0)-1 + 5 (HRt - HR0). (550 - HR0)-1, where HRt and Tre t are simultaneous measurements taken at any time during the exposure and HR0 and Tre 0 are the initial measurements. The adjusted PSI was applied to five groups (n = 11-14 per group) of acclimated rats (control and 2, 5, 10, and 30 days) exposed for 70 min to a hot climate [40 degrees C, 20% relative humidity (RH)]. A separate database representing two groups of acclimated or trained rats was also used and involved 20 min of low-intensity exercise (O2 consumption approximately 50 ml. min-1. kg-1) at three different climates: normothermic (24 degrees C, 40% RH), hot-wet (35 degrees C, 70% RH), and hot-dry (40 degrees C, 20% RH). In normothermia, rats also performed moderate exercise (O2 consumption approximately 60 ml. min-1. kg-1). The adjusted PSI differentiated among acclimation levels and significantly discriminated among all exposures during low-intensity exercise (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this index was able to assess the individual roles played by heat acclimation and exercise training. (+info)
Exercise-induced alterations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain phenotype: dose-response relationship.
This study investigated the effects of exercise training duration on the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform distribution in rat locomotor muscles. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (120 days old) were assigned to either a sedentary control group or to one of three endurance exercise training groups. Trained animals ran on a treadmill at approximately 75% maximal O2 uptake for 10 wk (4-5 days/wk) at one of three different exercise durations (30, 60, or 90 min/day). Training resulted in increases (P < 0.05) in citrate synthase activity in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus in both the 60 and 90 min/day duration groups and in the plantaris (Pla) in all three exercise groups. All durations of training resulted in a reduction (P < 0.05) in the percentage of MHCIIb and an increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of MHCIIa in the Pla. The magnitude of change in the percentage of MHCIIb in the Pla increased as a function of the training duration. In the extensor digitorum longus, 90 min of daily exercise promoted a decrease (P < 0.05) in percentage of MHCIIb and increases (P < 0.05) in the percentages of MHCI, MHCIIa, and MHCIId/x. Finally, training durations >/=60 min resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of MHCI and a concomitant decrease (P < 0.05) in the percentage of MHCIIa in the soleus. These results demonstrate that increasing the training duration elevates the magnitude of the fast-to-slow shift in MHC phenotype in rat hindlimb muscles. (+info)
Early occurrence of respiratory muscle deoxygenation assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy during leg exercise in patients with chronic heart failure.
The mechanisms of respiratory muscle deoxygenation during incremental leg exercise with expired gas analysis were investigated in 29 patients with chronic heart failure and 21 normal subjects. The deoxygenation and blood volume of the respiratory muscle and exercising leg muscle were assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). To evaluate the influence of the leg exercise on the blood volume of the respiratory muscle, 10 normal subjects also underwent a hyperventilation test with NIRS. The respiratory muscle deoxygenation point (RDP), at which oxygenated hemoglobin starts to decrease, was observed in both groups during exercise. The oxygen consumption (VO2) and the minute ventilation at the RDP in the patients was lower (p<0.01). At the same VO2, the respiratory rate was higher in patients (p<0.01). During exercise, the blood volume of the leg muscle increased, while that of the respiratory muscle decreased. During a hyperventilation test, the minute ventilation was higher than that of the RDP during exercise, the blood volume of the respiratory muscle did not decrease, and the RDP was not detectable. In conclusion, a limited ability to increase perfusion of respiratory muscles during exercise combined with the greater work of breathing results in early respiratory muscle deoxygenation in patients with chronic heart failure. (+info)
Determinants of exercise-induced ST-segment displacement in the aVL lead in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease.
Although the aVL lead in exercise electrocardiography is reported to be helpful in identifying a significant narrowing of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), its role in exercise testing has not been fully evaluated. Accordingly, 821 patients who underwent both standard exercise testing and coronary angiography were evaluated. In patients with aVL lead ST elevation, the incidence of a significant narrowing of the LAD (124/165 vs 348/656; p<0.001) was higher than in those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the 2 most important variables that correlated with aVL lead ST elevation were a greater number of leads with ST depression in the inferior leads and a smaller amplitude of R wave in the aVL lead. In contrast, variables correlating with aVL lead ST depression in the majority of cases were a greater number of leads with ST depression in all leads and the presence of inferior lead ST elevation. The results of this study indicate that although aVL lead ST elevation could be a marker for LAD narrowing, more important factors such as inferior lead ST-segment depression and the R-wave amplitude of the aVL lead should be taken into consideration. In contrast, ST depression in the aVL lead mostly represents exercise-induced myocardial ischemia of greater extent and severity. (+info)
Expression of insulin growth factor-1 splice variants and structural genes in rabbit skeletal muscle induced by stretch and stimulation.
1. Skeletal muscle is a major source of circulating insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1), particularly during exercise. It expresses two main isoforms. One of the muscle IGF-1 isoforms (muscle L.IGF-1) is similar to the main liver IGF-1 and presumably has an endocrine action. The other muscle isoform as a result of alternative splicing has a different 3' exon sequence and is apparently designed for an autocrine/paracrine action (mechano-growth factor, MGF). Using RNase protection assays with a probe that distinguishes these differently spliced forms of IGF-1, their expression and also the expression of two structural genes was measured in rabbit extensor digitorum longus muscles subjected to different mechanical signals. 2. Within 4 days, stretch using plaster cast immobilization with the limb in the plantar flexed position resulted in marked upregulation of both forms of IGF-1 mRNA. Electrical stimulation at 10 Hz combined with stretch (overload) resulted in an even greater increase of both types of IGF-1 transcript, whereas electrical stimulation alone, i.e. without stretch, resulted in no significant increase over muscle from sham-operated controls. Previously, it was shown that stretch combined with electrical stimulation of the dorsiflexor muscles in the adult rabbit results in a marked increase in muscle mass involving increases in both length and girth, within a few days. The expression of both systemic and autocrine IGF-1 growth factors provides a link between the mechanical signal and the marked increase in the structural gene expression involved in tissue remodelling and repair. 3. The expression of the beta actin gene was seen to be markedly upregulated in the stretched and stretched/stimulated muscles. It was concluded that the increased expression of this cytoskeletal protein gene is an indication that the production of IGF-1 may initially be a response to local damage. 4. Switches in muscle fibre phenotype were studied using a specific gene probe for the 2X myosin heavy chain gene. Type 2X expression was found to decrease markedly with stimulation alone and when electrical stimulation was combined with stretch. Unlike the induction of IGF-1 and beta actin, the decreased expression of the 2X myosin mRNA was less marked in the 'stretch only' muscles. This indicates that the interconversion of fibre type 2X to 2A may in some situations be commensurate with, but not under the control of IGF-1. (+info)