Natural sporting ability and predisposition to cardiovascular disorders.
We tested the hypothesis that people with a natural ability in 'power sports' (a presumed marker for predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres) might have increased risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to those with a natural ability in 'endurance sports' (as a marker for predominance of type 1, oxidative muscle fibres). We examined subsequent cardiovascular disorders retrospectively in 231 male former soldiers, aged 34-87 years, who had undergone a course in physical training in the Army School of Physical Training, Aldershot, UK, who assessed themselves as having natural ability in either power (n = 107) or endurance (n = 124) sports. The proportion with CHD, defined as angina and/or coronary angioplasty and/or coronary artery bypass graft and/or heart attack was 18.7% in the 'power group' vs. 9.7% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 3.9, p = 0.05). The proportions with CHD and/or risk factors rose to 39.3% in the 'power group' vs. 25.8% in the 'endurance group' (difference: chi 2 = 4.8, p = 0.03). Under logistic regression analysis, compared to the 'endurance group', the 'power group' had 2.2 (95% CI: 1.00-4.63) the risk of developing CHD, and 1.86 (95% confidence interval: 1.06 to 3.25) the risk of developing CHD and/or risk factors. Men with a natural ability in 'power sports' are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular disorders, compared to men with a natural ability in 'endurance sports'. A predominance of type 2, glycolytic muscle fibres, presumably of genetic origin, may predispose to cardiovascular disorders. (+info)
Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with high exercise tolerance.
BACKGROUND: Although high exercise tolerance is associated with an excellent prognosis, the significance of abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with high exercise tolerance has not been established. This study retrospectively compares the utility of MPI and exercise ECG (EECG) in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 388 consecutive patients who underwent exercise MPI and reached at least Bruce stage IV, 157 (40.5%) had abnormal results and 231 (59.5%) had normal results. Follow-up was performed at 18+/-2.7 months. Adverse events, including revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death, occurred in 40 patients. Nineteen patients had revascularization related to the MPI results or the patient's condition at the time of MPI and were not included in further analysis. Seventeen patients (12.2%) with abnormal MPI and 4 (1.7%) with normal MPI had adverse cardiac events (P<0.001). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that MPI was an excellent predictor of cardiac events (global chi2=13.2; P<0.001; relative risk=8; 95% CI=3 to 23) but EECG had no predictive power (global chi2=0.05; P=0.8; relative risk=1; 95% CI=0.4 to 3.0). The addition of Duke's treadmill score risk categories did not improve the predictive power of EECG (global chi2=0.17). The predictive power of the combination of EECG (including Duke score categories) and MPI was no better than that of MPI alone (global chi2=13.5). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike EECG, MPI is an excellent prognostic indicator for adverse cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD and high exercise tolerance. (+info)
Influence of body temperature on the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise in the heat.
We investigated whether fatigue during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments occurred at the same critical level of hyperthermia when the initial value and the rate of increase in body temperature are altered. To examine the effect of initial body temperature [esophageal temperature (Tes) = 35.9 +/- 0.2, 37.4 +/- 0. 1, or 38.2 +/- 0.1 (SE) degrees C induced by 30 min of water immersion], seven cyclists (maximal O2 uptake = 5.1 +/- 0.1 l/min) performed three randomly assigned bouts of cycle ergometer exercise (60% maximal O2 uptake) in the heat (40 degrees C) until volitional exhaustion. To determine the influence of rate of heat storage (0.10 vs. 0.05 degrees C/min induced by a water-perfused jacket), four cyclists performed two additional exercise bouts, starting with Tes of 37.0 degrees C. Despite different initial temperatures, all subjects fatigued at an identical level of hyperthermia (Tes = 40. 1-40.2 degrees C, muscle temperature = 40.7-40.9 degrees C, skin temperature = 37.0-37.2 degrees C) and cardiovascular strain (heart rate = 196-198 beats/min, cardiac output = 19.9-20.8 l/min). Time to exhaustion was inversely related to the initial body temperature: 63 +/- 3, 46 +/- 3, and 28 +/- 2 min with initial Tes of approximately 36, 37, and 38 degrees C, respectively (all P < 0.05). Similarly, with different rates of heat storage, all subjects reached exhaustion at similar Tes and muscle temperature (40.1-40.3 and 40. 7-40.9 degrees C, respectively), but with significantly different skin temperature (38.4 +/- 0.4 vs. 35.6 +/- 0.2 degrees C during high vs. low rate of heat storage, respectively, P < 0.05). Time to exhaustion was significantly shorter at the high than at the lower rate of heat storage (31 +/- 4 vs. 56 +/- 11 min, respectively, P < 0.05). Increases in heart rate and reductions in stroke volume paralleled the rise in core temperature (36-40 degrees C), with skin blood flow plateauing at Tes of approximately 38 degrees C. These results demonstrate that high internal body temperature per se causes fatigue in trained subjects during prolonged exercise in uncompensable hot environments. Furthermore, time to exhaustion in hot environments is inversely related to the initial temperature and directly related to the rate of heat storage. (+info)
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activation in inactive muscle during and after maximal exercise in men.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity (PDHa) and acetyl-group accumulation were examined in the inactive deltoid muscle in response to maximal leg exercise in men. Seven subjects completed three consecutive 30-s bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling, with 4-min rest intervals between bouts. Biopsies of the deltoid were obtained before exercise, after bouts 1 and 3, and after 15 min of rest recovery. Inactive muscle lactate (LA) and pyruvate (PYR) contents increased more than twofold (P < 0.05) after exercise (bout 3) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased PYR accumulation secondary to LA uptake by the inactive deltoid was associated with greater PDHa, which progressively increased from 0.71 +/- 0.23 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 at rest to a maximum of 1.83 +/- 0.30 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1 after bout 3 (P < 0.05) and remained elevated after 15 min of recovery (1.63 +/- 0.24 mmol. min-1. kg wet wt-1; P < 0.05). Acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine accumulations were unaltered. Increased PDHa allowed and did not limit the oxidation of LA and PYR in inactive human skeletal muscle after maximal exercise. (+info)
An echocardiographic study of right and left ventricular adaptation to physical exercise in elite female orienteers.
BACKGROUND: A considerable body of echocardiographic studies has described how athletic training induces morphological adaptation of the left ventricle in male endurance athletes, but only a few studies have described left ventricular adaptation in female endurance athletes. In contrast to changes in the left ventricle far less attention has been directed towards right ventricular changes due to extensive physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to obtain normal values and to determine if there are any differences in right and left ventricular cavity and wall dimensions between female orienteers and females with a mainly sedentary lifestyle. METHODS: Echocardiography was performed in 42 highly trained elite female orienteers and 32 healthy female students with a predominantly sedentary lifestyle. The 74 females had no history of cardiac disease, a normal electrocardiogram and showed no echocardiographic abnormalities. M-mode and two-dimensional measurements of the right and left ventricular cavity and wall were obtained in elite orienteers and sedentary females. For the right ventricle and wall, multiple cross-sections were used and measurements were obtained from the right ventricular inflow and outflow tract. RESULTS: The left ventricular end-diastolic cavity dimension and the left ventricular wall thickness were significantly greater in the athletes compared with the sedentary controls. The right ventricular inflow tract measurements were all significantly greater in the orienteers compared with the controls but the right ventricular outflow tract measurements were comparable in the study groups. The right ventricular wall thickness, calculated as the mean of three different wall measurements was an average of 13% greater in the athletes compared with the sedentary controls. CONCLUSION: This study suggests symmetrical cardiac enlargement with a concomitant increase in both the right and left ventricular wall, probably reflecting the increased haemodynamic loading in the female athletes. (+info)
Relationship between activity levels, aerobic fitness, and body fat in 8- to 10-yr-old children.
The relationships between children's activity, aerobic fitness, and fatness are unclear. Indirect estimates of activity, e.g., heart rate (HR) and recall, may mask any associations. The purpose of this study was to assess these relationships by using the Tritrac-R3D, a pedometer, and heart rate. Thirty-four children, ages 8-10 yr, participated in the study. The Tritrac and pedometer were worn for up to 6 days. HR was measured for 1 day. Activity measured by Tritrac or pedometer correlated positively to fitness in the whole group (Tritrac, r = 0.66; pedometer, r = 0.59; P < 0.01) and in boys and girls separately (P < 0.05) and correlated negatively to fatness in the whole group (r = -0.42, P < 0.05). In contrast, HR did not correlate significantly to fitness, and HR of >139 beats/min correlated positively to fatness in girls (r = 0.64, P < 0.05). This suggests that HR is misleading as a measure of activity. This study supports a positive relationship between activity and fitness and suggests a negative relationship between fatness and activity. (+info)
Phospholamban deficiency does not compromise exercise capacity.
Deficiency of phospholamban (PLB) results in enhancement of basal murine cardiac function and an attenuated response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. To determine whether the absence of PLB also reduces the reserve capacity of the murine cardiovascular system to respond to stress, we evaluated the heart rate (HR), blood pressure, and metabolic responses of PLB-deficient (PLB-/-) mice to graded treadmill exercise (GTE). PLB-/- mice were hypertensive at rest (125 +/- 19 vs. 109 +/- 16 mmHg, P < 0.05) but had normal tachycardic and hypotensive responses to isoproterenol. The HR response to GTE was normal; however, the hypertension in PLB-/- mice normalized at peak exercise. Their exercise capacities, as measured by duration of exercise and peak oxygen consumption (VO2), were normal. The oxygen pulse (VO2/HR) curve was also normal in PLB-/- mice, suggesting an ability to appropriately increase stroke volume and oxygen extraction during GTE, despite an inability to increase beta-adrenergically stimulated cardiac contractility. Thus deficiency of PLB, although resulting in diminished beta-adrenergic inotropic reserve, does not compromise cardiac performance during exercise. (+info)
Long-term prostacyclin for pulmonary hypertension with associated congenital heart defects.
BACKGROUND: Although long-term prostacyclin (PGI2) has been shown to improve hemodynamics, quality of life, and survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, its use in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and associated congenital heart defects (CHD) has not been evaluated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty patients (15+/-14 years) with PHT and associated CHD (9 atrial septal defect, 7 ventricular septal defect, 4 transposition of the great vessels, 3 patient ductus arteriosus, 3 partial anomalous pulmonary venous return, and 1 aortopulmonary window) who failed conventional therapy (including digitalis; diuretics; oxygen; warfarin; calcium channel blockade, if indicated; and surgery, if operable) were treated with chronic PGI2. Eleven patients had previous cardiac surgery at a median age of 3 years (range, 5 days to 47 years). Eleven of 20 patients had residual systemic to pulmonary shunts. Hemodynamics, NYHA functional class, and exercise capacity were measured at baseline and after 1 year of PGI2 therapy. None of the patients acutely responded to PGI2 administration. Despite lack of an acute response, mean pulmonary artery pressure decreased 21% on chronic PGI2: 77+/-20 to 61+/-15 mm Hg (P<0.01, n=16). Cardiac index and pulmonary vascular resistance also improved on long-term PGI2: 3. 5+/-2.0 to 5.9+/-2.7 L. min-1. m-2 (P<0.01, n=16), and 25+/-13 to 12+/-7 U.m2 (P<0.01, n=16), respectively. NYHA functional class improved from 3.2+/-0.7 to 2.0+/-0.9 (P<0.0001, n=19). Exercise capacity increased from 408+/-149 to 460+/-99 m (P=0.13, n=14) on long-term PGI2. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic PGI2 improves hemodynamics and quality of life in patients with PHT and associated CHD who fail conventional therapy. As previously demonstrated in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension, long-term PGI2 may have an important role in the treatment of patients with PHT and associated CHD. (+info)