Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion.
1. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. 2. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50 % maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4 % glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22 % glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. 3. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. 4. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Fast, 73-74 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Lo-Glu and 117-119 micromol kg-1 min-1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100 % in all trials. 5. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible. (+info)
High-resistance training and muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise.
To investigate the hypothesis that changes in muscle submaximal exercise metabolism would occur as a result of fiber hypertrophy, induced by high-resistance training (HRT), active but untrained males (age 20 +/- 0.7 yr; mean +/- SE) performed lower-limb weight training 3 days/wk for 12 wk using three sets of 6-8 repetitions maximal (RM)/day. Muscle metabolism was examined at different stages of training (4, 7, and 12 wk) using a two-stage continuous cycle test performed at the same absolute power output and duration (56.4 +/- 2.9 min) and representing 57 and 72% of pretraining peak aerobic power (VO2 peak). Compared with pretraining, at the end of exercise, HRT resulted in a higher (P < 0.05) phosphocreatine (PCr; 27.4 +/- 6. 7 vs. 38.0 +/- 1.9 mmol/kg dry wt), a lower lactate (38.9 +/- 8.5 vs. 24.4 +/- 6.1 mmol/kg dry wt), and a higher (P < 0.05) glycogen content (132 +/- 11 vs. 181 +/- 7.5 mmol glucosyl units/kg dry wt). The percent change from rest before and after training was 63 and 50% for PCr, 676 and 410% for lactate, and 60 and 43% for glycogen, respectively. These adaptations, which were observed only at 72% VO2 peak, occurred by 4 wk of training in the case of PCr and glycogen and before any changes in fiber cross-sectional area, capillarization, or oxidative potential. Fiber hypertrophy, observed at 7 and 12 wk of training, failed to potentiate the metabolic response. No effect of HRT was found on VO2 peak with training (41.2 +/- 2.9 vs. 41.0 +/- 2.1 ml. kg-1. min-1) or on the steady-state, submaximal exercise rate of oxygen consumption. It is concluded that the HRT results in muscle metabolic adaptations that occur independently of fiber hypertrophy. (+info)
Effects of moderate exercise training on plasma volume, baroreceptor sensitivity and orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects.
The effect of physical training on an individual's ability to withstand an orthostatic stress is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the effects on orthostatic tolerance in healthy volunteers of training at a level appropriate for unfit subjects and cardiorespiratory patients. In 11 asymptomatic, untrained subjects the following assessments were made: plasma volume by Evans Blue dye dilution and blood volume derived from haematocrit; carotid baroreceptor sensitivity from the slope of the regression of change in cardiac interval against pressure applied to a neck chamber; orthostatic tolerance as time to presyncope in a test of head-up tilting combined with lower body suction; exercise test relating heart rate to oxygen consumption. Subjects were then given a training schedule (5BX/XBX, Royal Canadian Air Force) involving 11-12 min of mixed exercises per day until an age/sex related 'target' was reached. Following training all subjects showed evidence of improved fitness, seen as decreases in heart rate at an oxygen uptake (Vo2) of 1.5 1 min-1 and in the elevation of the regression line between heart rate and Vo2. All also had increases in plasma and blood volumes and decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity. Seven of the subjects showed increases in orthostatic tolerance. Improvement in orthostatic tolerance was related to a low initial tolerance, and was associated with increases in plasma volume and decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity. These results show that moderate exercise training increases orthostatic tolerance in subjects who do not already have a high initial tolerance and suggest that training may be of value in the management of untrained patients with attacks of syncope due to orthostatic intolerance. (+info)
Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and vocational status following a 12 month cardiac exercise rehabilitation programme.
OBJECTIVE: To examine and evaluate improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, psychological wellbeing, quality of life, and vocational status in postmyocardial infarction patients during and after a comprehensive 12 month exercise rehabilitation programme. SUBJECTS: The sample population comprised 124 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myocardial infarction (122 men and two women). INTERVENTIONS: 62 patients were randomly allocated to a regular weekly aerobic training programme, three times a week for 12 months, and compared with 62 matched controls who did not receive any formal exercise training. A five year follow up questionnaire/interview was subsequently conducted on this population to determine selected vocational/lifestyle changes. RESULTS: Significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness (p < 0.01-0.001), psychological profiles (p < 0.05-0.001), and quality of life scores (p < 0.001) were recorded in the treatment population when compared with their matched controls. Although there were no significant differences in mortality, a larger percentage of the regular exercisers resumed full time employment and they returned to work earlier than the controls. Controls took lighter jobs, lost more time from work, and suffered more non-fatal reinfarctions (p < 0.05-0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Regularly supervised and prolonged aerobic exercise training improves cardiorespiratory fitness, psychological status, and quality of life. The trained population also had a reduction in morbidity following myocardial infarction, and significant improvement in vocational status over a five year follow up period. (+info)
Correlates of individual differences in body-composition changes resulting from physical training in obese children.
BACKGROUND: No studies have been reported in children that assess correlates of body-composition changes in response to a physical training intervention. OBJECTIVE: The hypothesis studied was that variation in diet and physical activity would explain a significant portion of the interindividual variation in the response of body composition to physical training. DESIGN: The participants were 71 obese children aged 7-11 y (22 boys, 49 girls; 31 whites, 40 blacks). Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, physical activity by a 7-d recall interview, and diet by two, 2-d recalls. The children underwent 4 mo of physical training. RESULTS: The mean attendance was 4 d/wk, the mean (+/-SD) heart rate for the 40-min sessions was 157 +/- 7 beats/min, and the mean energy expenditure was 946 +/- 201 kJ/session. On average, the percentage body fat decreased significantly in the total group, and total mass, fat-free soft tissue, bone mineral content, and bone mineral density increased, but there was a good deal of individual variability. Multiple regression models indicated that in general, more frequent attendance, being a boy, lower energy intake, and more vigorous activity were associated with healthier body-composition changes with physical training. Ethnicity was not retained as a correlate of the change of any component of body composition. CONCLUSIONS: In obese children, age, vigorous activity, diet, and baseline percentage body fat together accounted for 25% of the variance in the change in percentage body fat with physical training. (+info)
Status of the year 2000 health goals for physical activity and fitness.
In Healthy People 2000, the national strategy for improving the health of the American people by the year 2000, lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity are major determinants of chronic disease and disability. Despite the documented benefits of exercise in enhancing health and reducing the risk of premature death, only 1 of the 13 physical activity and fitness objectives of Healthy People 2000 has been met or exceeded. Although progress toward 5 objectives for the year 2000 has been made, 3 objectives are actually farther from attainment. Coronary heart disease death rates (Objective 1.1) have declined, and the prevalence of overweight people (Objective 1.2) has increased. Overall physical activity in adults (Objectives 1.3 and 1.4) and strengthening and stretching activities in children (Objective 1.6) have increased, but reduction in the percentage of sedentary persons (Objective 1.5) has showed no change. The proportion of the population adopting sound dietary practices combined with regular physical activity to attain appropriate body weight (Objective 1.7) has declined. Even though participation in daily school physical education (Objective 1.8) has shown a decline during the past several years, students who are enrolled in physical education classes are spending more time performing physical activities (Objective 1.9). The proportion of work sites offering employer-sponsored physical activity and fitness programs (Objective 1.10) has increased substantially, surpassing the year 2000 goal. Data to update progress for increasing physical activity levels of children (Objectives 1.3-1.5), community exercise facilities (Objective 1.11), clinician counseling about physical activity (Objective 1.12), and improvement in personal self-care activities (Objective 1.13) are not yet available. (+info)
Quantitative examinations of internal representations for arm trajectory planning: minimum commanded torque change model.
Quantitative examinations of internal representations for arm trajectory planning: minimum commanded torque change model. A number of invariant features of multijoint planar reaching movements have been observed in measured hand trajectories. These features include roughly straight hand paths and bell-shaped speed profiles where the trajectory curvatures between transverse and radial movements have been found to be different. For quantitative and statistical investigations, we obtained a large amount of trajectory data within a wide range of the workspace in the horizontal and sagittal planes (400 trajectories for each subject). A pair of movements within the horizontal and sagittal planes was set to be equivalent in the elbow and shoulder flexion/extension. The trajectory curvatures of the corresponding pair in these planes were almost the same. Moreover, these curvatures can be accurately reproduced with a linear regression from the summation of rotations in the elbow and shoulder joints. This means that trajectory curvatures systematically depend on the movement location and direction represented in the intrinsic body coordinates. We then examined the following four candidates as planning spaces and the four corresponding computational models for trajectory planning. The candidates were as follows: the minimum hand jerk model in an extrinsic-kinematic space, the minimum angle jerk model in an intrinsic-kinematic space, the minimum torque change model in an intrinsic-dynamic-mechanical space, and the minimum commanded torque change model in an intrinsic-dynamic-neural space. The minimum commanded torque change model, which is proposed here as a computable version of the minimum motor command change model, reproduced actual trajectories best for curvature, position, velocity, acceleration, and torque. The model's prediction that the longer the duration of the movement the larger the trajectory curvature was also confirmed. Movements passing through via-points in the horizontal plane were also measured, and they converged to those predicted by the minimum commanded torque change model with training. Our results indicated that the brain may plan, and learn to plan, the optimal trajectory in the intrinsic coordinates considering arm and muscle dynamics and using representations for motor commands controlling muscle tensions. (+info)
Walking training for intermittent claudication in diabetes.
OBJECTIVE: Walking training (WT) is an established treatment for patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Abnormalities specific to diabetes, such as a relative preponderance of distal lesions and the contribution of microcirculatory disease, might well influence the results of WT. We compared changes in walking distance during WT in diabetic patients with those in nondiabetic control subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In consecutive patients with limiting IC and proven peripheral vascular disease, 33 patients with diabetes were compared with 136 control subjects during a half-year supervised WT program. Walking parameters were determined every 2 months, while vascular parameters were obtained at the start and end of the program. RESULTS: Of the 33 diabetic patients, 25 (76%) completed the program, as did 87 of the 136 (64%) control subjects. Thereafter, the symptom-free walking distance and the maximum walking distance (MWD) were significantly increased in diabetic patients from 142 +/- 30 to 339 +/- 57 m and from 266 +/- 39 to 603 +/- 52 m, respectively, and in control subjects from 126 +/- 8 to 400 +/- 39 m and from 292 +/- 18 to 628 +/- 36 m, respectively. The relative gain in MWD was 88% greater in those with diabetes. The vascular parameters were comparable for both groups before and after WT. CONCLUSIONS: WT is an effective treatment for IC, with a greater relative gain in diabetic patients. (+info)