Mechanical treatment of phthiriasis palpebrarum. (1/4)

Phthiriasis palpebrarum is a rare disease in which crab lice infest the eyelashes. It can cause pruritic lid margins or unusual blepharoconjunctivitis and is difficult to diagnose and treat. We diagnosed and managed a case of phthiriasis palpebrarum in both upper eyelids, accompanied by nits, on the scalp of a 6 year-old female child. We removed the eyelashes, including lice and nits, by pulling with fine forceps without sedation. On the second month after treatment, all lice and nits were eradicated without recurrence and the eyelashes grew back. In conclusion, phthiriasis palpebrarum can be diagnosed by close examination of the eyelashes and eyelid margins with slit lamp and can be managed mechanically.  (+info)

Evolutionary relationships of "Candidatus Riesia spp.," endosymbiotic enterobacteriaceae living within hematophagous primate lice. (2/4)

The primary endosymbiotic bacteria from three species of parasitic primate lice were characterized molecularly. We have confirmed the characterization of the primary endosymbiont (P-endosymbiont) of the human head/body louse Pediculus humanus and provide new characterizations of the P-endosymbionts from Pediculus schaeffi from chimpanzees and Pthirus pubis, the pubic louse of humans. The endosymbionts show an average percent sequence divergence of 11 to 15% from the most closely related known bacterium "Candidatus Arsenophonus insecticola." We propose that two additional species be added to the genus "Candidatus Riesia." The new species proposed within "Candidatus Riesia" have sequence divergences of 3.4% and 10 to 12% based on uncorrected pairwise differences. Our Bayesian analysis shows that the branching pattern for the primary endosymbionts was the same as that for their louse hosts, suggesting a long coevolutionary history between primate lice and their primary endosymbionts. We used a calibration of 5.6 million years to date the divergence between endosymbionts from human and chimpanzee lice and estimated an evolutionary rate of nucleotide substitution of 0.67% per million years, which is 15 to 30 times faster than previous estimates calculated for Buchnera, the primary endosymbiont in aphids. Given the evidence for cospeciation with primate lice and the evidence for fast evolutionary rates, this lineage of endosymbiotic bacteria can be evaluated as a fast-evolving marker of both louse and primate evolutionary histories.  (+info)

Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia. (3/4)

Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation.  (+info)

Case of Phthiriasis palpebrarum with blepheroconjunctivitis. (4/4)