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(1/112) Recent developments in clinical photography.

A system comprising a clinical camera, specialized retractors, and a new occlusal mirror are described to maximize the quality of both intra-oral and extra-oral photography in the multi-user situation.  (+info)

(2/112) Digital photography in orthodontics.

A brief history of digital photography is provided along with a critical appraisal of the 'prosumer' and professional systems currently available. Recommendations are made as to the system best suited to current orthodontic practice.  (+info)

(3/112) The use of QLF to quantify in vitro whitening in a product testing model.

BACKGROUND: Professional and consumer interest in whitening products continues to increase against a background of both increased oral health awareness and demand for cosmetic procedures. In the current legal climate, few dentists are providing 'in-office' whitening treatments, and thus many patients turn to home-use products. The most common of these are the whitening toothpastes. Researchers are keen to quantify the effectiveness of such products through clinically relevant trials. AIM: Previous studies examining whitening products have employed a variety of stained substrates to monitor stain removal. This study aimed to quantify the removal of stain from human enamel using a new device, quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). The experimental design follows that of a product-testing model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 11 previously extracted molar teeth were coated with transparent nail varnish leaving an exposed window of enamel. The sound, exposed enamel was subject to a staining regime of human saliva, chlorhexidine and tea. Each of the eleven teeth was subjected to serial exposures of a positive control (Bocasan), a negative control (water) and a test product (Yotuel toothpaste). Following each two-minute exposure QLF images of the teeth were taken (a total of 5 applications). Following completion of one test solution, the teeth were cleaned, re-stained and the procedure repeated with the next solution. QLF images were stored on a PC and analysed by a blinded single examiner. The deltaQ value at 5% threshold was reported. ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The study confirmed the ability of QLF to longitudinally quantify stain reduction from human enamel. The reliability of the technique in relation to positive and negative test controls was proven. The positive control had a significantly (alpha = 0.05) higher stain removal efficacy than water (p = 0.023) and Yotuel (p = 0.046). Yotuel was more effective than water (p = 0.023). CONCLUSION: The research community, the practicing clinician and the consumer all require sound product evaluation data. The use of human enamel specimens may offer more relevant clinical data. QLF has been designed as an in vivo device. Further development of the technique should permit in vivo clinical whitening trials.  (+info)

(4/112) The influence of maxillary gingival exposure on dental attractiveness ratings.

This study examined the influence of maxillary gingival display on the attractiveness ratings awarded by lay people. One hundred and twenty university students (94 females, 26 males) were shown seven photographs of a male and seven photographs of a female subject, each with varying levels of gingival display ranging from -2 to +4 mm. Attractiveness ratings were recorded on a 10-point numerical scale for each of the photographs. The photographs where the full height of the incisors were revealed and no gingival tissue was visible (0 mm of gingiva) were rated as the most attractive. Gingival display of more than 2 mm was rated as progressively less attractive. Linear regression analysis revealed that those students who had received orthodontic treatment rated the photographs representing the female student as more attractive than those representing the male (P < 0.05).  (+info)

(5/112) Are photographic records reliable for orthodontic screening?

AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the reliability of a panel of orthodontists for accepting new patient referrals based on clinical photographs. SAMPLE: Eight orthodontists from Greater Manchester, Lancashire, Chester, and Derbyshire observed clinical photographs of 40 consecutive new patients attending the orthodontic department, Hope Hospital, Salford. METHOD: They recorded whether or not they would accept the patient, as a new patient referral, in their department. Each consultant was asked to take into account factors, such as oral hygiene, dental development, and severity of the malocclusion. STATISTICS: Kappa statistic for multiple-rater agreement and kappa statistic for intra-observer reliability were calculated. RESULTS: Inter-observer panel agreement for accepting new patient referrals based on photographic information was low (multiple rater kappa score 0.37). Intra-examiner agreement was better (kappa range 0.34-0.90). CONCLUSION: Clinician agreement for screening and accepting orthodontic referrals based on clinical photographs is comparable to that previously reported for other clinical decision making.  (+info)

(6/112) Clinical photographs--the gold standard.

This survey was carried out to allow a minimum data set required for intra- and extra-oral photographs to be established. In 1999 a questionnaire was sent to members of the Angle Society of Europe to establish their current clinical practice with regard to extra- and intra-oral photography. The Angle Society was chosen because of their stated commitment to a high standard of record keeping and of clinical care. Results showed that a full series of extra- and intra-oral photographs were taken both before and after treatment, as well as stage photographs during treatment on many cases. The need for each of these photographs will be discussed in some detail, and recommendations will be made as to what would be considered the Gold standard before, during, and after a course of orthodontic treatment.  (+info)

(7/112) Manipulation of digital photographs.

This article provides simple details of what to do with digital images once they have been captured. Inspection of the images as 'thumbnails' using Exif viewer is described, as well as zooming in to check detail contained on the images. Storage of every orthodontic patient using the popular programme, Dentofacial Showcase is described in some detail. For more formal verbal presentations or written material intended for display Microsoft Powerpoint is the programme of choice. Transfer of the images between the three programmes is described in detail, as well as recommended layouts for written and verbal presentations.  (+info)

(8/112) Use of photographs for communicating with the laboratory in indirect posterior restorations.

This article presents a single onlay case that was significantly enhanced through a detailed communication process between the clinician and the laboratory technician. By using colour slides as part of the dentist-technician communication process, the author found that the technician was better able to create an esthetic, accurate and successful restoration that addressed the patient's needs.  (+info)