(1/3233) Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2.
Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration. (+info)
(2/3233) Involvement of tyrosine phosphorylation in HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor-induced cell death in L6 myoblasts.
Our previous studies have shown that the HMG-CoA reductase (HCR) inhibitor (HCRI), simvastatin, causes myopathy in rabbits and kills L6 myoblasts. The present study was designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism of HCRI-induced cell death. We have demonstrated that simvastatin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins within 10 min. These phosphorylations were followed by apoptosis, as evidenced by the occurrence of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and by morphological changes detected with Nomarski optics. Simvastatin-induced cell death was prevented by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The MTT assay revealed that the addition of mevalonic acid into the culture medium partially inhibited simvastatin-induced cell death. Thus, these results suggested that protein tyrosine phosphorylation might play an important role in the intracellular signal transduction pathway mediating the HCRI-induced death of myoblasts. (+info)
(3/3233) Phosphotyrosine binding domains of Shc and insulin receptor substrate 1 recognize the NPXpY motif in a thermodynamically distinct manner.
Phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains of the adaptor protein Shc and insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) interact with a distinct set of activated and tyrosine-phosphorylated cytokine and growth factor receptors and play important roles in mediating mitogenic signal transduction. By using the technique of isothermal titration calorimetry, we have studied the thermodynamics of binding of the Shc and IRS-1 PTB domains to tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY-containing peptides derived from known receptor binding sites. The results showed that relative contributions of enthalpy and entropy to the free energy of binding are dependent on specific phosphopeptides. Binding of the Shc PTB domain to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides from TrkA, epidermal growth factor, ErbB3, and insulin receptors is achieved via an overall entropy-driven reaction. On the other hand, recognition of the phosphopeptides of insulin and interleukin-4 receptors by the IRS-1 PTB domain is predominantly an enthalpy-driven process. Mutagenesis and amino acid substitution experiments showed that in addition to the tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY motif, the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 prefer a large hydrophobic residue at pY-5 and a small hydrophobic residue at pY-1, respectively (where pY is phosphotyrosine). These results agree with the calculated solvent accessibility of these two key peptide residues in the PTB domain/peptide structures and support the notion that the PTB domains of Shc and IRS-1 employ functionally distinct mechanisms to recognize tyrosine-phosphorylated receptors. (+info)
(4/3233) In situ detection of activated Bruton's tyrosine kinase in the Ig signaling complex by phosphopeptide-specific monoclonal antibodies.
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a critical transducer of signals originating from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Dosage, sequential phosphorylation, and protein interactions are interdependent mechanisms influencing Btk function. Phosphopeptide-specific mAbs recognizing two distinct phosphotyrosine modifications were used to quantify Btk activation by immunofluorescent techniques during B cell stimulation. In a population of cultured B cells stimulated by BCR crosslinking and analyzed by flow cytometry, transient phosphorylation of the regulatory Btk tyrosine residues (551Y and 223Y) was detected. The kinetics of phosphorylation of the residues were temporally distinct. Tyrosine 551, a transactivating substrate site for Src-family kinases, was maximally phosphorylated within approximately 30 seconds of stimulation as monitored by flow cytometry. Tyrosine 223, an autophosphorylation site within the SH3 domain, was maximally phosphorylated at approximately 5 minutes. Btk returned to a low tyrosine phosphorylation level within 30 minutes, despite persistent elevation of global tyrosine phosphorylation. Colocalization of activated Btk molecules with the crosslinked BCR signaling complex was observed to coincide with the period of maximal Btk tyrosine phosphorylation when stimulated B cells were analyzed with confocal microscopy. The results of these in situ temporal and spatial analyses imply that Btk signaling occurs in the region of the Ig receptor signaling complex, suggesting a similar location for downstream targets of its activity. (+info)
(5/3233) Increased insulin sensitivity and obesity resistance in mice lacking the protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B gene.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) has been implicated in the negative regulation of insulin signaling. Disruption of the mouse homolog of the gene encoding PTP-1B yielded healthy mice that, in the fed state, had blood glucose concentrations that were slightly lower and concentrations of circulating insulin that were one-half those of their PTP-1B+/+ littermates. The enhanced insulin sensitivity of the PTP-1B-/- mice was also evident in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The PTP-1B-/- mice showed increased phosphorylation of the insulin receptor in liver and muscle tissue after insulin injection in comparison to PTP-1B+/+ mice. On a high-fat diet, the PTP-1B-/- and PTP-1B+/- mice were resistant to weight gain and remained insulin sensitive, whereas the PTP-1B+/+ mice rapidly gained weight and became insulin resistant. These results demonstrate that PTP-1B has a major role in modulating both insulin sensitivity and fuel metabolism, thereby establishing it as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. (+info)
(6/3233) Interferon-alpha activates multiple STAT proteins and upregulates proliferation-associated IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 genes in human T cells.
Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine that has antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunoregulatory functions. There is increasing evidence that IFN-alpha has an important role in T-cell biology. We have analyzed the expression of IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 genes in anti-CD3-activated human T lymphocytes. The induction of these genes is associated with interleukin-2 (IL-2)-induced T-cell proliferation. Treatment of T lymphocytes with IFN-alpha, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-15 upregulated IL-2Ralpha, c-myc, and pim-1 gene expression. IFN-alpha also sensitized T cells to IL-2-induced proliferation, further suggesting that IFN-alpha may be involved in the regulation of T-cell mitogenesis. When we analyzed the nature of STAT proteins capable of binding to IL-2Ralpha, pim-1, and IRF-1 GAS elements after cytokine stimulation, we observed IFN-alpha-induced binding of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT4, but not STAT5 to all of these elements. Yet, IFN-alpha was able to activate binding of STAT5 to the high-affinity IFP53 GAS site. IFN-alpha enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, and STAT5b. IL-12 induced STAT4 and IL-2 and IL-15 induced STAT5 binding to the GAS elements. Taken together, our results suggest that IFN-alpha, IL-2, IL-12, and IL-15 have overlapping activities on human T cells. These findings thus emphasize the importance of IFN-alpha as a T-cell regulatory cytokine. (+info)
(7/3233) Involvement of wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein in B-cell cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase pathway.
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) has been shown to play a role in normal B-lymphocyte development. Defective expression of Btk leads to human and murine immunodeficiencies. However, the exact role of Btk in the cytoplasmic signal transduction in B cells is still unclear. This study represents a search for the substrate for Btk in vivo. We identified one of the major phosphoproteins associated with Btk in the preB cell line NALM6 as the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), the gene product responsible for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, which is another hereditary immunodeficiency with distinct abnormalities in hematopoietic cells. We demonstrated that WASP was transiently tyrosine-phosphorylated after B-cell antigen receptor cross-linking on B cells, suggesting that WASP is located downstream of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. An in vivo reconstitution system demonstrated that WASP is physically associated with Btk and can serve as the substrate for Btk. A protein binding assay suggested that the tyrosine-phosphorylation of WASP alters the association between WASP and a cellular protein. Furthermore, identification of the phosphorylation site of WASP in reconstituted cells allowed us to evaluate the catalytic specificity of Btk, the exact nature of which is still unknown. (+info)
(8/3233) Expression of the erythropoietin receptor by trophoblast cellsin the human placenta.
Nonclassical sites of erythropoietin (EPO) and erythropoietin receptor (EPO-R) expression have been described that suggest new physiological roles for this hormone unrelated to erythropoiesis. The recent finding of EPO expression by trophoblast cells in the human placenta prompted us to consider whether these cells also express EPO-R. With use of immunocytochemistry, EPO-R was identified in villous and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells, as well as in the syncytiotrophoblast at all gestational ages. EPO-R was also expressed by cells within the villous core, including endothelial cells of fetoplacental blood vessels. Placental tissues and isolated and immunopurified trophoblast cells, as well as trophoblast-derived choriocarcinoma Jar cells, expressed immunoreactive EPO-R on Western blot. EPO-R mRNA was also detected in the same placental tissues and trophoblast cells by nested-primer reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Finally, EPO-R was functional insofar as the receptor was phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to exogenous EPO treatment of cultured trophoblast or Jar cells. Thus, the present findings support the hypothesis that trophoblast cells of the human placenta express EPO-R. In view of these results, taken together with previous work demonstrating EPO expression by the same cells, an autocrine role for this hormone in the survival, proliferation, or differentiation of placental trophoblast cells is proposed. (+info)