(1/1379) Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530.
Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases. (+info)
(2/1379) Function of WW domains as phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules.
Protein-interacting modules help determine the specificity of signal transduction events, and protein phosphorylation can modulate the assembly of such modules into specific signaling complexes. Although phosphotyrosine-binding modules have been well-characterized, phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding modules have not been described. WW domains are small protein modules found in various proteins that participate in cell signaling or regulation. WW domains of the essential mitotic prolyl isomerase Pin1 and the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 bound to phosphoproteins, including physiological substrates of enzymes, in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. The Pin1 WW domain functioned as a phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding module, with properties similar to those of SRC homology 2 domains. Phosphoserine- or phosphothreonine-binding activity was required for Pin1 to interact with its substrates in vitro and to perform its essential function in vivo. (+info)
(3/1379) In situ detection of activated Bruton's tyrosine kinase in the Ig signaling complex by phosphopeptide-specific monoclonal antibodies.
Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a critical transducer of signals originating from the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Dosage, sequential phosphorylation, and protein interactions are interdependent mechanisms influencing Btk function. Phosphopeptide-specific mAbs recognizing two distinct phosphotyrosine modifications were used to quantify Btk activation by immunofluorescent techniques during B cell stimulation. In a population of cultured B cells stimulated by BCR crosslinking and analyzed by flow cytometry, transient phosphorylation of the regulatory Btk tyrosine residues (551Y and 223Y) was detected. The kinetics of phosphorylation of the residues were temporally distinct. Tyrosine 551, a transactivating substrate site for Src-family kinases, was maximally phosphorylated within approximately 30 seconds of stimulation as monitored by flow cytometry. Tyrosine 223, an autophosphorylation site within the SH3 domain, was maximally phosphorylated at approximately 5 minutes. Btk returned to a low tyrosine phosphorylation level within 30 minutes, despite persistent elevation of global tyrosine phosphorylation. Colocalization of activated Btk molecules with the crosslinked BCR signaling complex was observed to coincide with the period of maximal Btk tyrosine phosphorylation when stimulated B cells were analyzed with confocal microscopy. The results of these in situ temporal and spatial analyses imply that Btk signaling occurs in the region of the Ig receptor signaling complex, suggesting a similar location for downstream targets of its activity. (+info)
(4/1379) Autophosphorylation of p110delta phosphoinositide 3-kinase: a new paradigm for the regulation of lipid kinases in vitro and in vivo.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are lipid kinases which also possess an in vitro protein kinase activity towards themselves or their adaptor proteins. The physiological relevance of these phosphorylations is unclear at present. Here, the protein kinase activity of the tyrosine kinase-linked PI3K, p110delta, is characterized and its functional impact assessed. In vitro autophosphorylation of p110delta completely down-regulates its lipid kinase activity. The single site of autophosphorylation was mapped to Ser1039 at the C-terminus of p110delta. Antisera specific for phospho-Ser1039 revealed a very low level of phosphorylation of this residue in cell lines. However, p110delta that is recruited to activated receptors (such as CD28 in T cells) shows a time-dependent increase in Ser1039 phosphorylation and a concomitant decrease in associated lipid kinase activity. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid, an inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatases, also dramatically increases the level of Ser1039-phosphorylated p110delta. LY294002 and wortmannin blocked these in vivo increases in Ser1039 phosphorylation, consistent with the notion that PI3Ks, and possibly p110delta itself, are involved in the in vivo phosphorylation of p110delta. In summary, we show that PI3Ks are subject to regulatory phosphorylations in vivo similar to those identified under in vitro conditions, identifying a new level of control of these signalling molecules. (+info)
(5/1379) The JAK-binding protein JAB inhibits Janus tyrosine kinase activity through binding in the activation loop.
The Janus family of protein tyrosine kinases (JAKs) regulate cellular processes involved in cell growth, differentiation and transformation through their association with cytokine receptors. However, compared with other kinases, little is known about cellular regulators of the JAKs. We have recently identified a JAK-binding protein (JAB) that inhibits JAK signaling in cells. In the studies presented here we demonstrate that JAB specifically binds to the tyrosine residue (Y1007) in the activation loop of JAK2, whose phosphorylation is required for activation of kinase activity. Binding to the phosphorylated activation loop requires the JAB SH2 domain and an additional N-terminal 12 amino acids (extended SH2 subdomain) containing two residues (Ile68 and Leu75) that are conserved in JAB-related proteins. An additional N-terminal 12-amino-acid region (kinase inhibitory region) of JAB also contributes to high-affinity binding to the JAK2 tyrosine kinase domain and is required for inhibition of JAK2 signaling and kinase activity. Our studies define a novel type of regulation of tyrosine kinases and might provide a basis for the design of specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (+info)
(6/1379) Multisite autophosphorylation of p21-activated protein kinase gamma-PAK as a function of activation.
p21-activated protein kinase (PAK) is a family of serine/threonine kinases whose activity is stimulated by binding to small G-proteins such as Cdc42 and subsequent autophosphorylation. Focusing on the ubiquitous gamma-isoform of PAK in this study, baculovirus-infected insect cells were used to obtain recombinant gamma-PAK, while native gamma-PAK was isolated from rabbit reticulocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of gamma-PAK followed by immunoblot analysis revealed a similar profile for native and recombinant gamma-PAK, both consisting of multiple protein spots. Following Cdc42-stimulated autophosphorylation, the two-dimensional profiles of native and recombinant gamma-PAK were characterized by a similar acidic shift, suggesting a common response to Cdc42. To understand the effect of differential phosphorylation on its activation status, gamma-PAK autophosphorylation was conducted in the presence or absence of activators such as Cdc42 and histone II-AS, followed by tryptic digestion and comparative two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping. The major phosphopeptides were subjected to a combination of manual and automated amino acid sequencing. Overall, eight autophosphorylation sites were identified in Cdc42-activated gamma-PAK, six of which are in common with those previously reported in alpha-PAK, while Ser-19 and Ser-165 appear to be uniquely phosphorylated in the gamma-form. Further, the phosphorylation of Ser-141, Ser-165, and Thr-402 was found to correlate with gamma-PAK activation. (+info)
(7/1379) Heparin-induced conformational change in microtubule-associated protein Tau as detected by chemical cross-linking and phosphopeptide mapping.
In Alzheimer's disease, microtubule-associated protein tau becomes abnormally phosphorylated and aggregates into paired helical filaments. Sulfated glycosaminoglycans such as heparin and heparan sulfate were shown to accumulate in pretangle neurons, stimulate in vitro tau phosphorylation, and cause tau aggregation into paired helical filament-like filaments. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan-tau interaction was suggested to be the central event in the development of neuropathology in Alzheimer's disease brain (Goedert, M., Jakes, R., Spillantini, M. G., Hasegawa, M., Smith, M. J., and Crowther, R. A. (1996) Nature 383, 550-553). The biochemical mechanism by which sulfated glycosaminoglycans stimulate tau phosphorylation and cause tau aggregation remains unclear. In this study, disuccinimidyl suberate (DSS), a bifunctional chemical cross-linker, cross-linked tau dimers, tetramers, high molecular size aggregates, and two tau species of sizes 72 and 83 kDa in the presence of heparin. In the absence of heparin only dimeric tau was cross-linked by DSS. Fast protein liquid chromatography gel filtration revealed that 72- and 83-kDa species were formed by intramolecular cross-linking of tau by DSS. These observations indicate that heparin, in addition to causing aggregation, also induces a conformational change in tau in which reactive groups are unmasked or move closer leading to the DSS cross-linking of 72- and 83-kDa species. Heparin-induced structural changes in tau molecule depended on time of heparin exposure. Dimerization and tetramerization peaked at 48 h, whereas conformational change was completed within 30 min of heparin exposure. Heparin exposure beyond 48 h caused an abrupt aggregation of tau into high molecular size species. Heparin stimulated tau phosphorylation by neuronal cdc2-like kinase (NCLK) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Phosphopeptide mapping and phosphopeptide sequencing revealed that tau is phosphorylated by NCLK on Thr212 and Thr231 and by cAMP-dependent protein kinase on Ser262 only in the presence of heparin. Heparin stimulation of tau phosphorylation by NCLK showed dependence on time of heparin exposure and correlated with the heparin-induced conformational change of tau. Our data suggest that heparin-induced conformational change exposes new sites for phosphorylation within tau molecule. (+info)
(8/1379) Site-specific phosphorylation of synapsin I by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in pancreatic betaTC3 cells: synapsin I is not associated with insulin secretory granules.
Increasing evidence supports a physiological role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II) in the secretion of insulin from the pancreatic beta-cell, but the precise sites of action are not known. A role of this enzyme in neuroexocytosis is implicated by its phosphorylation of a vesicle-associated protein, synapsin I. Because of emerging similarities to the neuron with respect to exocytotic mechanisms, the expression and phosphorylation of synapsin I in the beta-cell have been studied. Synapsin I expression in clonal mouse beta-cells (betaTC3) and primary rat islet beta-cells was initially confirmed by immunoblot analysis. By immunoprecipitation, in situ phosphorylation of synapsin I was induced in permeabilized betaTC3 cells within a Ca2+ concentration range shown to activate endogenous CaM kinase II under identical conditions. Proteolytic digests of these immunoprecipitates revealed that calcium primarily induced the increased phosphorylation of sites identified as CaM kinase II-specific and distinct from protein kinase A-specific sites. Immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy verified synapsin I expression in betaTC3 cells and pancreatic slices but demonstrated little if any colocalization of synapsin I with insulin-containing dense core granules. Thus, although this study establishes that synapsin I is a substrate for CaM kinase II in the pancreatic beta-cell, this event appears not to be important for the mobilization of insulin granules. (+info)