(1/676) Characterization and expression of the cDNA encoding a new kind of phospholipid transfer protein, the phosphatidylglycerol/phosphatidylinositol transfer protein from Aspergillus oryzae: evidence of a putative membrane targeted phospholipid transfer protein in fungi.
The full-length cDNA of a phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) was isolated from Aspergillus oryzae by a RACE-PCR procedure using degenerated primer pool selected from the N-terminal sequence of the purified phosphatidylinositol/phosphatidylglycerol transfer protein (PG/PI-TP). The cDNA encodes a 173 amino acid protein of 18823 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence from position 38 to 67 is 100% identical to the N-terminal sequence (first 30 amino acids) of the purified PG/PI-TP. This amino acid sequence is preceded by a leader peptide of 37 amino acids which is predicted to be composed of a signal peptide of 21 amino acids followed by an extra-sequence of 16 amino acids, or a membrane anchor protein signal (amino acid 5-29). This strongly suggests that the PG/PI-TP is a targeted protein. The deduced mature protein is 138 amino acids long with a predicted molecular mass of 14933 Da. Comparison of the deduced PG/PI-TP sequence with other polypeptide sequences available in databases revealed a homology with a protein deduced from an open reading frame coding for an unknown protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (36% identity and 57% similarity). Apart from this homology, the PG/PI-TP is unique and specific to the filamentous fungi on the basis of comparison of PLTP protein sequences. Northern blot analysis of RNA isolated from A. oryzae cultures grown on glucose or glucose supplemented with phospholipids suggests that the PG/PI-TP is transcribed by only one RNA species and allows us to show that expression of the protein is regulated at the messenger RNA level. (+info)
(2/676) Targeted mutation of plasma phospholipid transfer protein gene markedly reduces high-density lipoprotein levels.
It has been proposed that the plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) facilitates the transfer of phospholipids and cholesterol from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) into high-density lipoproteins (HDL). To evaluate the in vivo role of PLTP in lipoprotein metabolism, we used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and produced mice with no PLTP gene expression. Analysis of plasma of F2 homozygous PLTP-/- mice showed complete loss of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, and partial loss of free cholesterol transfer activities. Moreover, the in vivo transfer of [3H]phosphatidylcholine ether from very-low-density proteins (VLDL) to HDL was abolished in PLTP-/- mice. On a chow diet, PLTP-/- mice showed marked decreases in HDL phospholipid (60%), cholesterol (65%), and apo AI (85%), but no significant change in non-HDL lipid or apo B levels, compared with wild-type littermates. On a high-fat diet, HDL levels were similarly decreased, but there was also an increase in VLDL and LDL phospholipids (210%), free cholesterol (60%), and cholesteryl ester (40%) without change in apo B levels, suggesting accumulation of surface components of TRL. Vesicular lipoproteins were shown by negative-stain electron microscopy of the free cholesterol- and phospholipid-enriched IDL/LDL fraction. Thus, PLTP is the major factor facilitating transfer of VLDL phospholipid into HDL. Reduced plasma PLTP activity causes markedly decreased HDL lipid and apoprotein, demonstrating the importance of transfer of surface components of TRL in the maintenance of HDL levels. Vesicular lipoproteins accumulating in PLTP-/- mice on a high-fat diet could influence the development of atherosclerosis. (+info)
(3/676) Stomatocytosis is absent in "stomatin"-deficient murine red blood cells.
To examine the relationship between erythrocyte membrane protein 7. 2b deficiency and the hemolytic anemia of human hereditary stomatocytosis, we created 7.2b knock-out mice by standard gene targeting approaches. Immunoblots showed that homozygous knock-out mice completely lacked erythrocyte protein 7.2b. Despite the absence of protein 7.2b, there was no hemolytic anemia and mouse red blood cells (RBCs) were normal in morphology, cell indices, hydration status, monovalent cation content, and ability to translocate lipids. The absence of the phenotype of hereditary stomatocytosis implies that protein 7.2b deficiency plays no direct role in the etiology of this disorder and casts doubt on the previously proposed role of this protein as a mediator of cation transport in RBC. (+info)
(4/676) Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) causes proteolytic cleavage of apolipoprotein A-I.
Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is a factor that plays an important role in HDL metabolism. In this study we present data suggesting that PLTP has an inherent protease activity. After incubation of HDL3 in the presence of purified plasma PLTP, the d < 1.25 g/ml particles (fusion particles) contained intact 28.2 kDa apoA-I while the d > 1.25 g/ml fraction (apoA-I-PL complexes) contained, in addition to intact apoA-I, a cleaved 23 kDa form of apoA-I. Purified apoA-I was also cleaved by PLTP and produced a similar 23 kDa apoA-I fragment. The cleavage of apoA-I increased as a function of incubation time and the amount of PLTP added. The process displayed typically an 8-10 h lag or induction period, after which the cleavage proceeded in a time-dependent manner. This lag-phase was necessary for the development of the cleavage activity during incubation at 37 degrees C. The specific apoA-I cleavage activity of different PLTP preparations varied between 0.4-0.8 microg apoA-I degraded/h per 1000 nmol per h of PLTP activity. The 23 kDa apoA-I fragment reacted with monoclonal antibodies specific for the N-terminal part of apoA-I, indicating that the apoA-I cleavage occurred in the C-terminal portion. The apoA-I cleavage products were further characterized by mass spectrometry. The 23 kDa fragment yielded a mass of 22.924 kDa, demonstrating that the cleavage occurs in the C-terminal portion of apoA-I between amino acid residues 196 (alanine) and 197 (threonine). The intact apoA-I and the 23 kDa fragment revealed identical N-terminal amino acid sequences. The cleavage of apoA-I could be inhibited with APMSF and chymostatin, suggesting that it is due to a serine esterase-type of proteolytic activity. Recombinant PLTP produced in CHO cells or using the baculovirus-insect cell system caused an apoA-I cleavage pattern identical to that obtained with plasma PLTP. The present results raise the question of whether PLTP-mediated proteolytic cleavage of apoA-I might affect plasma HDL metabolism by generating a novel kinetic compartment of apoA-I with an increased turnover rate. (+info)
(5/676) Retroviral insertions in Evi12, a novel common virus integration site upstream of Tra1/Grp94, frequently coincide with insertions in the gene encoding the peripheral cannabinoid receptor Cnr2.
The common virus integration site (VIS) Evi11 was recently identified within the gene encoding the hematopoietic G-protein-coupled peripheral cannabinoid receptor Cnr2 (also referred to as Cb2). Here we show that Cnr2 is a frequent target (12%) for insertion of Cas-Br-M murine leukemia virus (MuLV) in primary tumors in NIH/Swiss mice. Multiple provirus insertions in Evi11 were cloned and shown to be located within the 3' untranslated region of the candidate proto-oncogene Cnr2. These results suggest that proviral insertion in the Cnr2 gene is an important step in Cas-Br-M MuLV-induced leukemogenesis in NIH/Swiss mice. To isolate Evi11/Cnr2 collaborating proto-oncogenes, we searched for novel common VISs in the Cas-Br-M MuLV-induced primary tumors and identified a novel frequent common VIS, Evi12 (14%). Interestingly, 54% of the Evi11/Cnr2-rearranged primary tumors contained insertions in Evi12 as well, which suggests cooperative action of the target genes in these two common VISs in leukemogenesis. By interspecific backcross analysis it was shown that Evi12 resides on mouse chromosome 10 in a region that shares homology with human chromosomes 12q and 19p. Sequence analysis demonstrated that Evi12 is located upstream of the gene encoding the molecular chaperone Tra1/Grp94, which was previously mapped to mouse chromosome 10 and human chromosome 12q22-24. Thus, Tra1/Grp94 is a candidate target gene for retroviral activation or inactivation in Evi12. However, Northern and Western blot analyses did not provide evidence that proviral insertion had altered the expression of Tra1/Grp94. Additional studies are required to determine whether Tra1/Grp94 or another candidate proto-oncogene in Evi12 is involved in leukemogenesis. (+info)
(6/676) SEC14-dependent secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nondependence on sphingolipid synthesis-coupled diacylglycerol production.
The SEC14 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein required for secretory protein movement from the Golgi. Mutation of SAC1, a gene of unknown function, restores secretory flow in sec14-1(ts) strains. The existing model for the bypass of the sec14-1(ts) defect by sac1-22 involves stimulation of sphingolipid biosynthesis and, in particular, the synthesis of mannosyl-diinositolphosphoryl-ceramide with concomitant increases in Golgi diacylglycerol levels. To test this model, we disrupted IPT1, the mannosyl-diinositolphosphoryl-ceramide synthase of S. cerevisiae. Disruption of the IPT1 gene had no effect on the ability of sac1-22 to bypass sec14-1(ts). Furthermore, sphingolipid analysis of sec14-1(ts) and sec14-1(ts) sac1-22 strains showed that mannosyl-diinositolphosphoryl-ceramide synthesis was not stimulated in the bypass mutant. However, the sec14-1(ts) strain had elevated mannosyl-monoinositolphosphoryl-ceramide levels, and the sec14-1(ts) sac1-22 strain showed an 8-fold increase in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate along with a decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Cellular diacylglycerol levels, measured by [14C]acetate incorporation, did not differ between the sec14-1(ts) and the sec14-1 sac1-22 bypass strains, although disruption of IPT1 in the bypass strain resulted in reduced levels. These data indicate that phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, rather than mannosyl-diinositolphosphoryl-ceramide, accumulates in the sec14-1(ts) sac1-22 bypass strain, and that Golgi diacylglycerol accumulation is not required for bypass of the sec14-1(ts) growth and secretory phenotypes. (+info)
(7/676) Plasma phospholipid transfer protein prevents vascular endothelium dysfunction by delivering alpha-tocopherol to endothelial cells.
alpha-tocopherol, the most potent antioxidant form of vitamin E, is mainly bound to lipoproteins in plasma and its incorporation into the vascular wall can prevent the endothelium dysfunction at an early stage of atherogenesis. In the present study, the plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) was shown to promote the net mass transfer of alpha-tocopherol from high density lipoproteins (HDL) and alpha-tocopherol-albumin complexes toward alpha-tocopherol-depleted, oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL). The facilitated transfer reaction of alpha-tocopherol could be blocked by specific anti-PLTP antibodies. These observations indicate that PLTP may restore the antioxidant potential of plasma LDL at an early stage of the oxidation cascade that subsequently leads to cellular damages. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the PLTP-mediated net mass transfer of alpha-tocopherol can constitute a new mechanism for the incorporation of alpha-tocopherol into the vascular wall in addition to the previously recognized LDL receptor and lipoprotein lipase pathways. In ex vivo studies on rabbit aortic segments, the impairment of the endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation induced by oxidized LDL was found to be counteracted by a pretreatment with purified PLTP and alpha-tocopherol-albumin complexes, and both the maximal response and the sensitivity to acetylcholine were significantly improved. We conclude that PLTP, by supplying oxidized LDL and endothelial cells with alpha-tocopherol through a net mass transfer reaction may play at least two distinct beneficial roles in preventing endothelium damage, i.e., the antioxidant protection of LDL and the preservation of a normal relaxing function of vascular endothelial cells. (+info)
(8/676) Characterization of lipid efflux particles generated by seminal phospholipid-binding proteins.
We reported recently that the choline phospholipid-binding proteins (BSP-A1/-A2, BSP-A3 and BSP-30-kDa) of bovine seminal plasma (BSP) stimulate cholesterol and choline phospholipid efflux from fibroblasts. In this study, we characterized the lipid efflux particles generated by BSP proteins. The density gradient ultracentrifugation of the efflux medium from radiolabeled fibroblasts incubated with BSP proteins showed a single peak of [3H]cholesterol between density (d) 1.12 and 1.14 g/ml, which is in the range of high-density lipoproteins. Size-exclusion chromatographic and immunoblot analysis revealed that the efflux particles have a large size equal to or bigger than very low-density lipoproteins and contained BSP proteins. Lipid analysis of density gradient and gel filtration fractions from efflux medium of simultaneously labeled fibroblasts ([3H]cholesterol and [3H]choline) incubated with BSP proteins showed that the efflux particles were homogeneous and composed of cholesterol and choline phospholipids. The lipid particles contained BSP proteins, cholesterol and choline phospholipids in molar ratio of 0.05:1.21:1, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed that the BSP-generated lipid particles had a gamma migration pattern which is slower than low-density lipoproteins. The sonication of cholesterol and BSP proteins followed by gel filtration chromatographic analysis indicated no direct binding of cholesterol to BSP proteins. These results taken together indicate that BSP proteins induce a concomitant cholesterol and choline phospholipid efflux and generate large protein-lipid particles. (+info)