Modulation of polymorphic properties of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine by the antineoplastic ether lipid 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine.
The capacity of the antineoplastic ether lipid 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH3) to modulate the polymorphic properties of dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine has been studied using biophysical techniques. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that ET-18-OCH3 depresses the onset of the Lbeta to Lalpha phase transition, decreasing also DeltaH of the transition. At the same time, the onset of the transition from Lalpha to inverted hexagonal HII phase was gradually increased as the ether lipid concentration was increased, totally disappearing at concentrations higher than 5 mol%. Small-angle X-ray diffraction and 31P-NMR confirmed that ET-18-OCH3 induced that the appearance of the inverted hexagonal HII phase was shifted towards higher temperatures completely disappearing at concentrations higher than 5 mol%. These results were used to elaborate a partial phase diagram and they were discussed as a function of the molecular action of ET-18-OCH3. (+info)
Selective induction of apoptosis by capsaicin in transformed cells: the role of reactive oxygen species and calcium.
Capsaicin is a vanilloid quinone analog that inhibits the plasma membrane electron transport (PMOR) system and induces apoptosis in transformed cells. Using a cytofluorimetric approach we have determined that capsaicin induces a rapid increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by a subsequent disruption of the transmembrane mitochondrial potential (DeltaPsim) and DNA nuclear loss in transformed cell lines and in mitogen activated human T cells. This apoptotic pathway is biochemically different from the typical one induced by either ceramide or edelfosine where, in our system, the DeltaPsim dissipation precedes the generation of reactive oxygen species. Neither production of ROS nor apoptosis was found in capsaicin-treated resting T cells where the activity of the PMOR system is minimal when compared with mitogen activated or transformed T cells. Capsaicin also induces Ca2+ mobilization in activated but not in resting T cells. However, preincubation of cells with BAPTA-AM, which chelate cytosolic free calcium, did not prevent ROS generation or apoptosis induced by capsaicin, suggesting that ROS generation in capsaicin treated cells is not a consequence of calcium signaling and that the apoptotic pathway may be separated from the one that mobilizes calcium. Moreover, we present data for the implication of a possible vanilloid receptor in calcium mobilization, but not in ROS generation. These results provide evidence that the PMOR system may be an interesting target to design antitumoral and anti-inflammatory drugs. (+info)
Platelet-activating factor stimulates cytokine production by human endometrial stromal cells.
Although preimplantation embryo and decidual cells secrete significant amounts of platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF); its precise function in early pregnancy has yet to be established. To investigate the effect of PAF on cytokine synthesis, we measured the cytokine concentration in the culture media of two human cell lines: normal endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and endometrial stromal sarcoma cells (MaMi), following stimulation with a non-metabolized PAF analogue, carbamyl-PAF (C-PAF). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure five cytokines: interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). We also evaluated the mRNA expression for IL-6 and IL-8 in ESC after C-PAF stimulation using Northern blot analysis. Non-stimulated ESC and MaMi cells both secreted IL-6, IL-8, and M-CSF, but not MIP-1alpha or TNF-alpha. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, M-CSF, MIP-1alpha, and TNF-alpha in the culture media of both cell lines increased in parallel with increasing amounts of C-PAF. C-PAF stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 transcription in ESC. These results suggest that PAF secretion by decidual tissues and developing embryos may induce cytokine synthesis by the ESC, as part of the cytokine network in the feto-maternal unit. An increase in the local cytokine concentration may be an important factor in the maintenance of early stages of gestation. (+info)
Alkyl-lysophospholipids activate the SAPK/JNK pathway and enhance radiation-induced apoptosis.
Alkyl-lysophospholipids (ALPs) represent a new class of antitumor drugs that induce apoptotic cell death in a variety of tumor cell lines. Although their precise mechanism of action is unknown, ALPs primarily act on the cell membrane, where they inhibit signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Because stimulation of the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathway is essential for radiation-induced apoptosis in certain cell types, we tested the effect of ALPs in combination with ionizing radiation on MAPK/SAPK signaling and apoptosis induction. Here, we present data showing that three ALPs, 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine, hexadecylphosphocholine, and the novel compound octadecyl-(1,1-dimethyl-piperidinio-4-yl)-phosphate (D-21266) induce time- and dose-dependent apoptosis in the human leukemia cell lines U937 and Jurkat T but not in normal vascular endothelial cells. Moreover, in combination with radiation, ALPs strongly enhance the induction of apoptosis in both leukemic cell lines. All tested ALPs not only prevented MAPK activation, but, like radiation, stimulated the SAPK/JNK cascade within minutes. A dominant-negative mutant of c-Jun inhibited radiation- and ALP-induced apoptosis, indicating a requirement for the SAPK/JNK pathway. Our data support the view that ALPs and ionizing radiation cause an enhanced apoptotic effect by modulating the balance between the mitogenic, antiapoptotic MAPK, and the apoptotic SAPK/JNK pathways. This type of modulation of specific signal transduction pathways in tumor cells may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies. (+info)
Intravitreal toxicology in rabbits of two preparations of 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphonoformate, a sustained-delivery anti-CMV drug.
PURPOSE: To determine intraocular toxicity and efficacy of the lipid prodrug of foscarnet, 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphonoformate (ODG-PFA), as a long-acting, nontoxic intravitreous injectable drug delivery system for cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. METHODS: ODG-PFA was synthesized by coupling the phosphonate residue of PFA to the 3 hydroxyl of 1-O-octadecyl-sn-glycerol and formulated as micelles and liposomes at concentrations so that, after injection into the rabbit vitreous, the resultant intravitreal concentrations were 0.2 mM, 0.63 mM, and 2 mM in micellar formulation and 0.02 mM, 0.063 mM, 0.2 mM, and 0.63 mM for liposomal formulation. The compounds were injected, and toxicology evaluations were performed. RESULTS: Intravitreal injections of micellar ODG-PFA resulted in aggregation of the material in vitreous and variable local retinal damage. Intravitreal injections of the liposomal ODG-PFA revealed even dispersion of the compounds and a clear vitreous, using final concentration in the vitreous of 0.2 mM. No intraocular toxicity was found with the 0.632 mM final concentration. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for CMV of ODG-PFA was 0.43+/-0.27 microM, and the therapeutic index of ODG-PFA after intravitreal injection was estimated to be 1470:1. CONCLUSIONS: Lipid-derivatized foscarnet liposome formulations may be a useful long-acting delivery system for the therapy of CMV retinitis. (+info)
Differential effects of free and liposome-associated 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methylglycerophosphocholine on protein kinase C.
Incorporation of ET-18-OCH3 into well-characterized liposomes known as ELL-12 has eliminated its gastrointestinal and hemolytic toxicity without loss of growth inhibiting activity. ET-18-OCH3, but not ELL-12, blunted the increase in membrane protein kinase C (PKC) activity induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-myristate (TPA) and markedly reduced levels of PKC alpha in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Furthermore, prolonged treatment with ELL-12 neither inhibited TPA-induced translocations of PKC alpha and PKC delta to the particulate fraction nor caused down-regulation, and did not affect the cellular distribution of TPA-insensitive PKC zeta. In Jurkat T cells, where ELL-12 markedly induced apoptosis that was blocked by an inhibitor of caspase-3-like activities, it had no effect on PKC activity or translocation induced by TPA. Thus, it seems unlikely that PKC is involved in the therapeutic effects of ELL-12. (+info)
31P NMR first spectral moment study of the partial magnetic orientation of phospholipid membranes.
Structural data can be obtained on proteins inserted in magnetically oriented phospholipid membranes such as bicelles, which are most often made of a mixture of long and short chain phosphatidylcholine. Possible shapes for these magnetically oriented membranes have been postulated in the literature, such as discoidal structures with a thickness of one bilayer and with the short acyl chain phosphatidylcholine on the edges. In the present paper, a geometrical study of these oriented structures is done to determine the validity of this model. The method used is based on the determination of the first spectral moment of solid-state (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. From this first moment, an order parameter is defined that allows a quantitative analysis of partially oriented spectra. The validity of this method is demonstrated in the present study for oriented samples made of DMPC, DMPC:DHPC, DMPC:DHPC:gramicidin A and adriamycin:cardiolipin. (+info)
Induction of apoptosis in human mitogen-activated peripheral blood T-lymphocytes by the ether phospholipid ET-18-OCH3: involvement of the Fas receptor/ligand system.
1. Activated T-cells constitute a target for treatment of autoimmune diseases. We have found that the antitumour ether phospholipid 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycero-3-phosphocholine (ET-18-OCH3; edelfosine) induced dose- and time-dependent apoptosis in human mitogen-activated peripheral blood T-lymphocytes, but not in resting T-cells. T-lymphocytes were stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and interleukin-2 or with concanavalin A. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation through cell cycle and TUNEL analyses, as well as through visualization of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in agarose gels. 2. The ET-18-OCH3-mediated apoptotic response in activated T-lymphocytes was less intense than in human leukaemic T cell lines, such as Jurkat cells and Peer cells; namely about 25% apoptosis in activated T-cells versus about 46-61% apoptosis in T leukaemic cells after 24 h treatment with 10 microM ET-18-OCH3. 3. The ET-18-OCH3 thioether analogue BM 41.440 (ilmofosine) showed a similar apoptotic capacity to that found with ET-18-OCH3 in activated T-cells, whereas the phospholipid analogue hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) failed to promote this response. 4. The uptake of [3H]-ET-18-OCH3 was much larger in activated T-cells than in resting lymphocytes. 5. Using a cytofluorimetric approach we have found that ET-18-OCH3 induced disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species in activated T-cells, but not in resting lymphocytes. 6. ET-18-OCH3 induced an increase in Fas (APO-1/CD95) ligand mRNA expression in activated T-cells, and incubation with a blocking anti-Fas (APO-1/CD95) antibody partially inhibited the ET-18-OCH3-induced apoptosis of activated T-lymphocytes. 7. These results demonstrate that mitogen-activated T-cells, unlike resting lymphocytes, are able to take up significant amounts of ET-18-OCH3, and are susceptible to undergo apoptosis by the ether lipid via, in part, the Fas (APO-1/CD95) receptor/ligand system. This ET-18-OCH3 apoptotic action can be of importance in the therapeutic action of this ether lipid in certain autoimmune diseases. (+info)