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(1/1404) The effects of digestive enzymes on characteristics of placental insulin receptor. Comparison of particulate and soluble receptor preparations.

The role of the surrounding membrane structure on the binding characteristics of the insulin receptor was studied by using several digestive enzymes. The effects observed with particulate membrane preparations are compared with those from soluble receptor preparations. beta-Galactosidase and neuraminidase had no effect on insulin binding to either particulate or soluble receptors from human placentae. Exposure to 2 units of phospholipase C/ml increased insulin binding to particulate membranes, but was without effect on the soluble receptor preparation. The increase in binding to particulate membranes was shown to be due to an increase in apparent receptor number. After 5 min exposure to 500 microgram of trypsin/ml there was an increase in insulin binding to the particulate membrane fraction, owing to an increase in receptor affinity. After 15 min exposure to this amount of trypsin, binding decreased, owing to a progressive decrease in receptor availability. In contrast, this concentration of trypsin had no effect on the solubilized receptor preparation. Because of the differential effects of phospholipase C and trypsin on the particulate compared with the solubilized receptor preparations, it is concluded that the effects of these enzymes were due to an effect on the surrounding membrane structure. Changes in receptor configuration due to alterations within the adjoining membrane provide a potential mechanism for mediating short-term alterations in receptor function.  (+info)

(2/1404) Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles.

Lipase [EC 3.1.1.3] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

(3/1404) Isolation and amino acid sequence of a neurotoxic phospholipase A from the venom of the Australian tiger snake Notechis scutatus scutatus.

The complete amino acid sequence of notechis 5, a neurotoxic phospholipase A from the venom of Notechis scutatus scutatus (Australian tiger snake), has been elucidated. The main fragmentation of the 119-residue peptide chain was accomplished by digesting the reduced and S-carboxymethylated derivative of the protein with a staphylococcal protease specific for glutamoyl bonds. Tryptic peptides were used to align and complete the sequence of the four staphylococcal protease peptides. The sequence was determined by Edman degradation by means of the direct phenylthiohydantoin method. Notechis 5 differs in seven positions from the recently elucidated sequence of the presynaptic neurotoxin notexin from the same venom. Notechis 5 has a 50% higher specific prospholipase A activity than notexin when assayed against egg yolk but is only one-third as toxic.  (+info)

(4/1404) Lipid exchange between mixed micelles of phospholipid and triton X-100.

If phospholipase catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipid dissolved in a detergent mixed micelle is limited to the phospholipid carried by a single micelle, then hydrolysis ceases upon exhaustion of that pool. However, if the rate of phospholipid exchange between micelles exceeds the catalytic rate then all of the phospholipid is available for hydrolysis. To determine phospholipid availability we studied the exchange of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine between mixed micelles of phospholipid and non-ionic Triton detergents by both stopped-flow fluorescence-recovery and nuclear magnetic resonance-relaxation techniques. Stopped-flow analysis was performed by combining mixed micelles of Triton and phospholipid with mixed micelles that contained the fluorescent phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-(12-[{7-nitro-2-1, 3-benzoxadiazo-4-yl}amino]dodecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (P-2-NBD-PC). The concentration dependence of fluorescence recovery suggested a second-order exchange mechanism that was saturable. The true second-order rate constant depends on the specific mechanism for exchange, which was not determined in this study, but the rate constant will be on the order of 106 to 107 M-1s-1. Incorporation of 1-palmitoyl-2-(16-doxylstearoyl)phosphatidylcholine into micelles increased the rate of proton relaxation and gave a limiting relaxation time of 1.3 ms. The results demonstrate that phospholipid exchange was rapid and that the phospholipid content of a single micelle did not limit the rate of phospholipid hydrolysis by phospholipases.  (+info)

(5/1404) Stimulation of collagen galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities by lysophosphatidylcholine.

Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulated the activities of collagen galactosyl- and glucosyl-transferases in chick-embryo extract and its particulate fractions in vitro, whereas essentially no stimulation was noted in the high-speed supernatant, where the enzymes are soluble and membrane-free. The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine was masked by 0.1% Triton X-100. In kinetic experiments lysophosphatidylcholine raised the maximum velocities with respect to the substrates and co-substrates, whereas no changes were observed in the apparant Km values. Phospholipase A preincubation of the chick-embryo extract resulted in stimulation of both transferase activities, probably gy generating lysophosphatides from endogenous phospholipids. No stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine was found when tested with 500-fold-purified glycosyltransferase. The results suggest that collagen glycosyltransferases must be associated with the membrane structures of the cell in order to be stimulated by lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidylcholine could have some regulatory significance in vivo, since its concentration in the cell is comparable with that which produced marked stimulation in vitro.  (+info)

(6/1404) Lipid requirement of membrane-bound 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase. Studies on beef adrenocortical microsomes.

The role of phospholipid in the beef adrenal microsomal 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase (EC 5.3.1.1) has been investigated with the use of phospholipase A to alter the microsomal phospholipids. The byproducts of phospholipase A digestion have been removed with a wash solution containing bovine serum albumin. Removal of 80-85% of the phospholipid leads to loss of 80-90% of the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity. Reconstitution experiments have been performed by introduction of lipid aqueous dispersions in the enzymatic assay. Asolectin, a commercially available preparation of soy phosphatides, is able to stimulate the enzymatic activity but does not restore the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity in phospholipase-A-treated membranes. In contrast, the introduction of aqueous dispersions of microsomal total lipid mixtures in the enzymatic assay brings about a complete restoration of the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity in the lipid-depleted membranes. It is concluded that the bovine adrenal microsomal 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase requires phospholipid(s) to exhibit its full catalytic activity.  (+info)

(7/1404) A new pathway for the secretion of virulence factors by bacteria: the flagellar export apparatus functions as a protein-secretion system.

Biogenesis of the flagellum, a motive organelle of many bacterial species, is best understood for members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The flagellum is a heterooligomeric structure that protrudes from the surface of the cell. Its assembly initially involves the synthesis of a dedicated protein export apparatus that subsequently transports other flagellar proteins by a type III mechanism from the cytoplasm to the outer surface of the cell, where oligomerization occurs. In this study, the flagellum export apparatus was shown to function also as a secretion system for the transport of several extracellular proteins in the pathogenic bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica. One of the proteins exported by the flagellar secretion system was the virulence-associated phospholipase, YplA. These results suggest type III protein secretion by the flagellar system may be a general mechanism for the transport of proteins that influence bacterial-host interactions.  (+info)

(8/1404) Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysins and lethal toxins by Clostridium perfringens types A to D.

To obtain high yields of extracellular enzymes and toxins for immunological analysis, type culture collection strains of Clostridium perfringens types A to D and 28 fresh isolates of C. perfringens type A from humans were grown in fermenters under controlled conditions in a pre-reduced proteose peptone medium. The type culture collection strains all showed different characteristics with respect to growth rates and pH optima for growth. Production of phospholipase C (alpha-toxin), haemolysin and lethal activity varied considerably between the different types. Growth and extracellular protein production in fermenters with pH control and static or stirred cultures were compared. Production of all extracellular proteins measured was markedly improved by cultivation in fermenters with pH control. Strain ATCC13124 produced five times more phospholipase C than any of 28 freshly isolated strains of C. perfringens type A, grown under identical conditions. Haemolytic and lethal activities of the ATCC strain were equal or superior to the activities of any of the freshly isolated strains. There were no differences in the bacterial yields and in the production of extracellular toxins between type A strains isolated from clinical cases of gas gangrene and abdominal wounds, and those isolated from faecal samples from healthy persons.  (+info)