Homofermentative production of D- or L-lactate in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli RR1.
We investigated metabolic engineering of fermentation pathways in Escherichia coli for production of optically pure D- or L-lactate. Several pta mutant strains were examined, and a pta mutant of E. coli RR1 which was deficient in the phosphotransacetylase of the Pta-AckA pathway was found to metabolize glucose to D-lactate and to produce a small amount of succinate by-product under anaerobic conditions. An additional mutation in ppc made the mutant produce D-lactate like a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. When the pta ppc double mutant was grown to higher biomass concentrations under aerobic conditions before it shifted to the anaerobic phase of D-lactate production, more than 62.2 g of D-lactate per liter was produced in 60 h, and the volumetric productivity was 1.04 g/liter/h. To examine whether the blocked acetate flux could be reoriented to a nonindigenous L-lactate pathway, an L-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Lactobacillus casei was introduced into a pta ldhA strain which lacked phosphotransacetylase and D-lactate dehydrogenase. This recombinant strain was able to metabolize glucose to L-lactate as the major fermentation product, and up to 45 g of L-lactate per liter was produced in 67 h. These results demonstrate that the central fermentation metabolism of E. coli can be reoriented to the production of D-lactate, an indigenous fermentation product, or to the production of L-lactate, a nonindigenous fermentation product. (+info)
Plausible phosphoenolpyruvate binding site revealed by 2.6 A structure of Mn2+-bound phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase from Escherichia coli.
We have determined the crystal structure of Mn2+-bound Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) using X-ray diffraction at 2.6 A resolution, and specified the location of enzyme-bound Mn2+, which is essential for catalytic activity. The electron density map reveals that Mn2+ is bound to the side chain oxygens of Glu-506 and Asp-543, and located at the top of the alpha/beta barrel in PEPC. The coordination sphere of Mn2+ observed in E. coli PEPC is similar to that of Mn2+ found in the pyruvate kinase structure. The model study of Mn2+-bound PEPC complexed with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) reveals that the side chains of Arg-396, Arg-581 and Arg-713 could interact with PEP. (+info)
Chloroplast acclimation in leaves of Guzmania monostachia in response to high light.
Acclimation of leaves to high light (HL; 650 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) was investigated in the long-lived epiphytic bromeliad Guzmania monostachia and compared with plants maintained under low light (LL; 50 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Despite a 60% decrease in total chlorophyll in HL-grown plants, the chlorophyll a/b ratio remained stable. Additionally, chloroplasts from HL-grown plants had a much lower thylakoid content and reduced granal stacking. Immunofluorescent labeling techniques were used to quantify the level of photosynthetic polypeptides. HL-grown plants had 30% to 40% of the content observed in LL-grown plants for the light-harvesting complex associated with photosystems I and II, the 33-kD photosystem II polypeptide, and Rubisco. These results were verified using conventional biochemical techniques, which revealed a comparable 60% decrease in Rubisco and total soluble protein. When expressed on a chlorophyll basis, the amount of protein and Rubisco was constant for HL- and LL-grown plants. Acclimation to HL involves a tightly coordinated adjustment of photosynthesis, indicating a highly regulated decrease in the number of photosynthetic units manifested at the level of the content of light-harvesting and electron transport components, the amount of Rubisco, and the induction of Crassulacean acid metabolism. This response occurs in mature leaves and may represent a strategy that is optimal for the resource-limited epiphytic niche. (+info)
Extracellular oxidoreduction potential modifies carbon and electron flow in Escherichia coli.
Wild-type Escherichia coli K-12 ferments glucose to a mixture of ethanol and acetic, lactic, formic, and succinic acids. In anoxic chemostat culture at four dilution rates and two different oxidoreduction potentials (ORP), this strain generated a spectrum of products which depended on ORP. Whatever the dilution rate tested, in low reducing conditions (-100 mV), the production of formate, acetate, ethanol, and lactate was in molar proportions of approximately 2.5:1:1:0.3, and in high reducing conditions (-320 mV), the production was in molar proportions of 2:0.6:1:2. The modification of metabolic fluxes was due to an ORP effect on the synthesis or stability of some fermentation enzymes; thus, in high reducing conditions, lactate dehydrogenase-specific activity increased by a factor of 3 to 6. Those modifications were concomitant with a threefold decrease in acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) needed for biomass synthesis and a 0.5- to 5-fold decrease in formate flux. Calculations of carbon and cofactor balances have shown that fermentation was balanced and that extracellular ORP did not modify the oxidoreduction state of cofactors. From this, it was concluded that extracellular ORP could regulate both some specific enzyme activities and the acetyl-CoA needed for biomass synthesis, which modifies metabolic fluxes and ATP yield, leading to variation in biomass synthesis. (+info)
Carbon metabolism in developing soybean root nodules: the role of carbonic anhydrase.
A full-length cDNA clone encoding carbonic anhydrase (CA) was isolated from a soybean nodule cDNA library. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization were performed in order to assess the location of CA transcripts and protein in developing soybean nodules. CA transcripts and protein were present at high levels in all cell types of young nodules, whereas in mature nodules they were absent from the central tissue and were concentrated in cortical cells. The results suggested that, in the earlier stages of nodule development, CA might facilitate the recycling of CO2 while at later stages it may facilitate the diffusion of CO2 out of the nodule system. In parallel, sucrose metabolism was investigated by examination of the temporal and spatial transcript accumulation of sucrose synthase (SS) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) genes, with in situ hybridization. In young nodules, high levels of SS gene transcripts were found in the central tissue as well as in the parenchymateous cells and the vascular bundles, while in mature nodules the levels of SS gene transcripts were much lower, with the majority of the transcripts located in the parenchyma and the pericycle cells of the vascular bundles. High levels of expression of PEPC gene transcripts were found in mature nodules, in almost all cell types, while in young nodules lower levels of transcripts were detected, with the majority of them located in parenchymateous cells as well as in the vascular bundles. These data suggest that breakdown of sucrose may take place in different sites during nodule development. (+info)
Interpretation of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization postsource decay spectra of charge-derivatized peptides: some examples of tris[(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl) phosphonium]-tagged proteolytic digestion products of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase.
The fragmentation of peptides, to which a positive charge is attached at the N-terminus, was studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization postsource decay mass spectrometry. In these experiments, the tris[(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)phosphonium] acetyl group is covalently attached. The main advantage of this modification is that the resulting spectra are simplified and the fragment ions observed consist predominantly of a(n)-type ions. We report the results for charge-derivatized peptides formed following enzymatic digestion of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Specific fragmentation of bonds within aspargine and threonine residues are observed and are discussed. The understanding of the mechanistic aspects of the fragmentation process is essential to formulate a simple and straightforward mass spectrometric strategy for peptide sequencing using these charged derivatives. (+info)
Bicarbonate binding activity of the CmpA protein of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 involved in active transport of bicarbonate.
The cmpABCD operon of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 encodes an ATP-binding cassette transporter involved in HCO(3)(-) uptake. The three genes, cmpBCD, encode membrane components of an ATP-binding cassette transporter, whereas cmpA encodes a 42-kDa cytoplasmic membrane protein, which is 46.5% identical to the membrane-anchored substrate-binding protein of the nitrate/nitrite transporter. Equilibrium dialysis analysis using H(14)CO(3)(-) showed that a truncated CmpA protein lacking the N-terminal 31 amino acids, expressed in Escherichia coli cells as a histidine-tagged soluble protein, specifically binds inorganic carbon (CO(2) or HCO(3)(-)). The addition of the recombinant CmpA protein to a buffer caused a decrease in the concentration of dissolved CO(2) because of the binding of inorganic carbon to the protein. The decrease in CO(2) concentration was accelerated by the addition of carbonic anhydrase, indicating that HCO(3)(-), but not CO(2), binds to the protein. Mass spectrometric measurements of the amounts of unbound and bound HCO(3)(-) in CmpA solutions containing low concentrations of inorganic carbon revealed that CmpA binds HCO(3)(-) with high affinity (K(d) = 5 microm). A similar dissociation constant was obtained by analysis of the competitive inhibition of the CmpA protein on the carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase at limiting concentrations of HCO(3)(-). These findings showed that the cmpA gene encodes the substrate-binding protein of the HCO(3)(-) transporter. (+info)
Metabolic analysis of Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of the carboxylating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase.
Fermentation patterns of Escherichia coli with and without the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) enzymes were compared under anaerobic conditions with glucose as a carbon source. Time profiles of glucose and fermentation product concentrations were determined and used to calculate metabolic fluxes through central carbon pathways during exponential cell growth. The presence of the Rhizobium etli pyc gene in E. coli (JCL1242/pTrc99A-pyc) restored the succinate producing ability of E. coli ppc null mutants (JCL1242), with PYC competing favorably with both pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase. Succinate formation was slightly greater by JCL1242/pTrc99A-pyc than by cells which overproduced PPC (JCL1242/pPC201, ppc(+)), even though PPC activity in cell extracts of JCL1242/pPC201 (ppc(+)) was 40-fold greater than PYC activity in extracts of JCL1242/pTrc99a-pyc. Flux calculations indicate that during anaerobic metabolism the pyc(+) strain had a 34% greater specific glucose consumption rate, a 37% greater specific rate of ATP formation, and a 6% greater specific growth rate compared to the ppc(+) strain. In light of the important position of pyruvate at the juncture of NADH-generating pathways and NADH-dissimilating branches, the results show that when PPC or PYC is expressed, the metabolic network adapts by altering the flux to lactate and the molar ratio of ethanol to acetate formation. (+info)