(1/132) A novel mammalian lithium-sensitive enzyme with a dual enzymatic activity, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate phosphatase and inositol-polyphosphate 1-phosphatase.
We report the molecular cloning in Rattus norvegicus of a novel mammalian enzyme (RnPIP), which shows both 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP) phosphatase and inositol-polyphosphate 1-phosphatase activities. This enzyme is the first PAP phosphatase characterized at the molecular level in mammals, and it represents the first member of a novel family of dual specificity enzymes. The phosphatase activity is strictly dependent on Mg2+, and it is inhibited by Ca2+ and Li+ ions. Lithium chloride inhibits the hydrolysis of both PAP and inositol-1,4-bisphosphate at submillimolar concentration; therefore, it is possible that the inhibition of the human homologue of RnPIP by lithium ions is related to the pharmacological action of lithium. We propose that the PAP phosphatase activity of RnPIP is crucial for the function of enzymes sensitive to inhibition by PAP, such as sulfotransferase and RNA processing enzymes. Finally, an unexpected connection between PAP and inositol-1,4-bisphosphate metabolism emerges from this work. (+info)
(2/132) Sulfating-activity and stability of cDNA-expressed allozymes of human phenol sulfotransferase, ST1A3*1 ((213)Arg) and ST1A3*2 ((213)His), both of which exist in Japanese as well as Caucasians.
We recently found single amino acid substitutions ((213)Arg/His and (223)Met/Val) in polymorphic human phenol-sulfating phenol sulfotransferase (SULT: cDNAs encoding ST1A3, P PST or HAST1/2) among Caucasians and African-Americans. In a Japanese population (n = 143), allele frequencies of (213)Arg and (213)His were 83.2 and 16. 8%, respectively, but the (223)Val allele was not found. (213)His homozygosity was reportedly associated with both very low (>7-fold) sulfating activities of p-nitrophenol (at 4 microM) and low thermostability in platelets. Sulfating-activity determinations using recombinant (213)Arg- and (213)His-forms (ST1A3*1 and ST1A3*2, respectively) did not, however, reveal appreciable deficiency in [(35)S]3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS)-dependent sulfation of p-nitrophenol (4 microM) by ST1A3*2 (7.5 vs. 10.2 nmol/min/nmol SULT for ST1A3). Kinetic parameters for p-nitrophenol for p-nitrophenol sulfation supported the slight decrease in sulfating activities at 4 microM (K(m), 0.82 vs. 1.75 microM; V(max), 13.2 vs. 13.1 nmol/min/nmol SULT, respectively, for ST1A3*1 and *2). p-Nitrophenyl sulfate-dependent 2-naphthol sulfation by ST1A3*2 was 69% of that by ST1A3*1 (p<0.05). However, ST1A3*2 was remarkably unstable at 45 and 37 degrees C as compared to ST1A3*1. The lower p-nitrophenol sulfating activity of ST1A3*2 may explain the lower platelet p-nitrophenol sulfation in ST1A3*2 homozygotes. Protein instability and ST1A3 gene regulation may be both involved in the polymorphism of p-nitrophenol sulfation in human tissues. (+info)
(3/132) Reduction of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate instead of 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate in cysteine biosynthesis by Rhizobium meliloti and other members of the family Rhizobiaceae.
We have cloned and sequenced three genes from Rhizobium meliloti (Sinorhizobium meliloti) that are involved in sulfate activation for cysteine biosynthesis. Two of the genes display homology to the Escherichia coli cysDN genes, which code for an ATP sulfurylase (EC 184.108.40.206). The third gene has homology to the E. coli cysH gene, a 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase (EC 220.127.116.11), but has greater homology to a set of genes found in Arabidopsis thaliana that encode an adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (APS) reductase. In order to determine the specificity of the R. meliloti reductase, the R. meliloti cysH homolog was histidine tagged and purified, and its specificity was assayed in vitro. Like the A. thaliana reductases, the histidine-tagged R. meliloti cysH gene product appears to favor APS over PAPS as a substrate, with a Km for APS of 3 to 4 microM but a Km for PAPS of >100 microM. In order to determine whether this preference for APS is unique to R. meliloti among members of the family Rhizobiaceae or is more widespread, cell extracts from R. leguminosarum, Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234, Rhizobium fredii (Sinorhizobium fredii), and Agrobacterium tumefaciens were assayed for APS or PAPS reductase activity. Cell extracts from all four species also preferentially reduce APS over PAPS. (+info)
(4/132) Pharmacological characterization of the human P2Y11 receptor.
1 The human P2Y11 receptor is coupled to both the phosphoinositide and the cyclic AMP pathways. A pharmacological characterization of the recombinant human P2Y11 receptor has been conducted following stable expression in two different cell lines: the 1321N1 astrocytoma cells for inositol trisphosphate measurements and the CHO-K1 cells for cyclic AMP assays. The rank order of potency of a series of nucleotides was almost identical for the two pathways: ATPgammaS approximately BzATP > dATP > ATP > ADPbetaS > 2MeSATP. 2 ADPbetaS, AMPalphaS and A3P5PS behaved as partial agonists of the human P2Y11 receptor. At high concentrations, these three nucleotides were able to partially inhibit the ATP response. 3 Suramin was a more potent antagonist than reactive blue 2, whereas pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulphonic acid was completely inactive. The P2Y11 receptor proved to be sensitive to suramin in a competitive way with an apparent Ki value of 0.82+/-0. 07 microM. 4 The ATP derivative AR-C67085 (2-propylthio-beta, gamma-dichloromethylene-D-ATP), a potent inhibitor of ADP-induced platelet aggregation, was the most potent agonist of the P2Y11 receptor, among the various nucleotides tested. 5 The pharmacological profile of the recombinant human P2Y11 receptor is closely similar to that of the cyclic AMP-coupled P2 receptor recently described in HL-60 cells, suggesting that it is the same receptor. (+info)
(5/132) Molecular cloning and expression of chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase.
Chondroitin 4-sulfotransferase (C4ST) catalyzes the transfer of sulfate from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to position 4 of N-acetylgalactosamine residue of chondroitin. The enzyme has been previously purified to apparent homogeneity from the serum-free culture medium of rat chondrosarcoma cells (Yamauchi, A., Hirahara, Y., Usui, H., Takeda, Y., Hoshino, M., Fukuta, M., Kimura, J. H., and Habuchi, O. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2456-2463). The purified enzyme also catalyzed the sulfation of partially desulfated dermatan sulfate. We have now cloned the cDNA of the mouse C4ST on the basis of the amino acid sequences of peptides obtained from the purified enzyme by protease digestion. This cDNA contains a single open reading frame that predicts a protein composed of 352 amino acid residues. The protein predicts a Type II transmembrane topology. The predicted sequence of the protein contains all of the known amino acid sequence and four potential sites for N-glycosylation, which corresponds to the observation that the purified C4ST is an N-linked glycoprotein. The amino acid sequence of mouse C4ST showed significant sequence homology to HNK-1 sulfotransferase. Comparison of the sequence of mouse C4ST with human HNK-1 sulfotransferase revealed approximately 29% identity and approximately 48% similarity at the amino acid level. When the cDNA was introduced in a eukaryotic expression vector and transfected in COS-7 cells, the sulfotransferase activity that catalyzes the transfer of sulfate to position 4 of GalNAc residue of both chondroitin and desulfated dermatan sulfate was overexpressed. Northern blot analysis showed that, among various mouse adult tissues, 5.7-kilobase message of C4ST was mainly expressed in the brain and kidney. (+info)
(6/132) Induction of positive cooperativity by amino acid replacements within the C-terminal domain of Penicillium chrysogenum ATP sulfurylase.
ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum is an allosteric enzyme in which Cys-509 is critical for maintaining the R state. Cys-509 is located in a C-terminal domain that is 42% identical to the conserved core of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (adenylylsulfate) (APS) kinase. This domain is believed to provide the binding site for the allosteric effector, 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS). Replacement of Cys-509 with either Tyr or Ser destabilizes the R state, resulting in an enzyme that is intrinsically cooperative at pH 8 in the absence of PAPS. The kinetics of C509Y resemble those of the wild type enzyme in which Cys-509 has been covalently modified. The kinetics of C509S resemble those of the wild type enzyme in the presence of PAPS. It is likely that the negative charge on the Cys-509 side chain helps to stabilize the R state. Treatment of the enzyme with a low level of trypsin results in cleavage at Lys-527, a residue that lies in a region analogous to a PAPS motif-containing mobile loop of true APS kinase. Both mutant enzymes were cleaved more rapidly than the wild type enzyme, suggesting that movement of the mobile loop occurs during the R to T transition. (+info)
(7/132) Biosynthesis of dermatan sulfate. I. Formation of L-iduronic acid residues.
L-[14C]Iduronic acid-containing sulfated galactosaminoglycans were formed by incubation of a fibroblast particulate fraction with UDP-D[14C]glucuronic acid, UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine, and sulfate donor (3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate). The formation of L-iduronic acid was strongly promoted by concomitant sulfation of the polymer. In the absence of sulfate donor 5 to 10% of the [14C]uronic acid residues were L-iduronic acid. However, when 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate was included in the incubation mixture the amount of L-iduronic acid in the product increased 3 to 5-fold. Furthermore, approximately the same quantity of L-[14C]iduronic acid was recovered from the product formed in a pulse-chase experiment where incorporation of 14C-isotope preceded sulfation. It was therefore concluded that C-5 inversion of D-glucuronic acid to L-iduronic acid occurred on the polymer level as shown previously for the biosynthesis of heparin (Hook, M., Lindahl, U., Backstrom, G., Malmstrom, A., AND Fransson, L-A., J. Biol. Chem. (1974) 249, 3908). This conclusion was supported by the finding that no L[14C]iduronic acid could be detected in the UDP-hexuronic acid pool during this experiment. Nonsulfated and sulfated [14C]galactosaminoglycan products were degraded separately with chondroitinase-AC. The non-sulfated products afforded primarily disaccharide and a small amount of tetrasaccharide, while the sulfated products yielded, in addition, a considerable amount of larger oligosaccharides. Tetrasaccharides from nonsulfated products contained L-iduronic acid indicating that C-5 inversion at solitary sites can occur in the absence of sulfation of adjacent hexosamine moieties. The larger oligosaccharides obtained after chondroitinase-AC digestion of sulfated products yielded L-iduronic acid upon acid hydrolysis and were susceptible to chondroitinase-ABC digestion. The split products were almost exclusively 4-sulfated disaccharides. These results demonstrate that formation of blocks of L-iduronic acid-containing repeat periods is associated with 4-sulfation of adjacent hexosamine moieties. (+info)
(8/132) Biosynthesis of 17beta-oestradiol in human breast carcinoma tissue and a novel method for its characterization.
Conversion of 7alpha3H-testosterone to 17beta-oestradiol by human mammary carcinoma tissue in vitro has been demonstrated. It was characterized unequivocally by conversion to 17beta-oestradiol-3-sulphate upon incubation with adenosine-3'-phosphate-5'-phosphosulphate and the highly specific enzyme oestrogen sulphotransferase. (+info)