Electrostatic properties of membranes containing acidic lipids and adsorbed basic peptides: theory and experiment.
(65/2206)The interaction of heptalysine with vesicles formed from mixtures of the acidic lipid phosphatidylserine (PS) and the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) was examined experimentally and theoretically. Three types of experiments showed that smeared charge theories (e.g., Gouy-Chapman-Stern) underestimate the membrane association when the peptide concentration is high. First, the zeta potential of PC/PS vesicles in 100 mM KCl solution increased more rapidly with heptalysine concentration (14.5 mV per decade) than predicted by a smeared charge theory (6.0 mV per decade). Second, changing the net surface charge density of vesicles by the same amount in two distinct ways produced dramatically different effects: the molar partition coefficient decreased 1000-fold when the mole percentage of PS was decreased from 17% to 4%, but decreased only 10-fold when the peptide concentration was increased to 1 microM. Third, high concentrations of basic peptides reversed the charge on PS and PC/PS vesicles. Calculations based on finite difference solutions to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation applied to atomic models of heptalysine and PC/PS membranes provide a molecular explanation for the observations: a peptide adsorbing to the membrane in the presence of other surface-adsorbed peptides senses a local potential more negative than the average potential. The biological implications of these "discreteness-of-charge" effects are discussed. (+info)
Oral administration of soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine (SB-tPS) reduces ischemic damage in the gerbil hippocampus.
(66/2206)Mongolian gerbils orally administered with soybean lecithin transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine (SB-tPS, 240 mg/kg) for 5 days were subjected to cerebral ischemia by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. The pyramidal cell damage of the hippocampal CA1 subfield was classified into 4 grades according to the proportion of damaged neurons on the tenth day after the ischemic treatment. The damage score of the SB-tPS group was statistically less than that of the control group. This suggests that the pre-administration of SB-tPS may relieve the delayed neuronal cell death caused by cerebral ischemia. (+info)
Cocaine induces apoptosis in fetal myocardial cells through a mitochondria-dependent pathway.
(67/2206)In the present study, we examined the direct cytotoxic effects of cocaine on fetal cardiac myocytes. Cocaine treatment of cultured fetal rat (21 days) myocardial cells (FRMCs) induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in apoptotic cells in FRMCs. Cocaine induced surface exposure of phosphatidylserine in FRMCs at 12-h treatment and increased apoptotic cells up to 96 h. Corresponding DNA fragmentation induced by cocaine in these cells was demonstrated in situ by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling assay and by electrophoresis of labeled DNA fragments, showing the characteristic apoptotic ladders. The pD(2) and maximum increase of cocaine-induced apoptosis in FRMCs were 4.3 and 3.2-fold, respectively. Both caspase-9 and caspase-3 inhibitors (Z-LEHD-FMK and Ac-DEVD-CHO, respectively) blocked cocaine-induced apoptosis. In addition, cyclosporin A inhibited cocaine-induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) value of 0.1 microM. The maximum of 86% inhibition was obtained with 3 microM cyclosporin A. Cocaine induced the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and increased its levels in the cytosol by 3.1-fold. In accordance, the level of cytochrome c in the mitochondria fraction decreased by approximately 60%. Cocaine-induced translocation of cytochrome c was inhibited by cyclosporin A. The results indicate that cocaine has a direct cytotoxic effect on fetal cardiomyocytes by inducing apoptosis in the cells. Furthermore, the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and its subsequent activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 play a key role in cocaine-induced apoptosis. (+info)
One of the origins of plasma membrane phosphatidylserine in plant cells is a local synthesis by a serine exchange activity.
(68/2206)In plant cells, as in animal cells, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is considered to be the major site of phospholipid synthesis, and it has been shown that phosphatidylserine (PS) reaches the plasma membrane via the vesicular ER-Golgi-plasma membrane pathway in leek cells. However, it has never been determined whether the plasma membrane of leek cells is able to synthesize PS. We have analyzed the distribution of PS synthesizing enzymes along the vesicular pathway. In ER, Golgi and plasma membrane fractions isolated from leek cells, we have measured the activity of the two biosynthetic pathways leading to the synthesis of PS, i.e. serine exchange and CTP cytidylyltransferase plus PS synthase. We have found a high serine exchange activity in the plasma membrane fraction, and then determined that this membrane is able to synthesize both long chain fatty acid- and very long chain fatty acid-containing PS. Therefore, the PS in the plasma membrane of leek cells has two different origins: the intracellular vesicular pathway from the ER and a local synthesis in the plasma membrane. (+info)
Theory of lipid polymorphism: application to phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine.
(69/2206)We introduce a microscopic model of a lipid with a charged headgroup and flexible hydrophobic tails, a neutral solvent, and counter ions. Short-ranged interactions between hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties are included as are the Coulomb interactions between charges. Further, we include a short-ranged interaction between charges and neutral solvent, which mimics the short-ranged, thermally averaged interaction between charges and water dipoles. We show that the model of the uncharged lipid displays the usual lyotropic phases as a function of the relative volume fraction of the headgroup. Choosing model parameters appropriate to dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine in water, we obtain phase behavior that agrees well with experiment. Finally we choose a solvent concentration and temperature at which the uncharged lipid exhibits an inverted hexagonal phase and turn on the headgroup charge. The lipid system makes a transition from the inverted hexagonal to the lamellar phase, which is related to the increased waters of hydration correlated with the increased headgroup charge via the charge-solvent interaction. The polymorphism displayed upon variation of pH mimics that of the behavior of phosphatidylserine. (+info)
Phosphatidyl serine exposure during apoptosis precedes release of cytochrome c and decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential.
(70/2206)Time kinetics of phosphatidyl serine (PS) exposure were compared to other apoptotic parameters following different apoptotic stimuli. Our data indicate that anti-Fas treatment of L929sAhFas cells results in rapid exposure of PS, which precedes decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) and release of cytochrome c, indicating that PS exposure occurs independently of these mitochondrial events. Also during TNF-, etoposide- or staurosporine-mediated apoptosis in PC60 RI/RII cells, PS-positive cells were observed before they had a decreased DeltaPsi(m). However, during growth factor depletion-induced death of 32D cells, both phenomena seemed to occur at the same time. (+info)
Over-expression of Bcl-2 does not protect cells from hypericin photo-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, but delays subsequent events in the apoptotic pathway.
(71/2206)Hypericin (HY) is a powerful photo-inducer of apoptosis in Jurkat cells as measured by caspase-3 activation, cell shrinkage, phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the appearance of hypoploid DNA. These processes are preceded by rapid Bcl-2-independent mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization and a drop in cytoplasmic pH. Pre-incubation of cells with inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, such as cyclosporin A or bongkrekic acid, does not protect cells from mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsim) decrease. However, monitoring of mitochondrial entrapped calcein by confocal fluorescence imaging gives clear evidence of HY photo-induced mitochondrial permeability. This should be considered as the result of a non-specific alteration of mitochondrial membrane integrity brought about by lipid peroxidation. Nevertheless, synthesis of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 appears to delay the subsequent time course of PS exposure and to reduce caspase-3 activation and the fraction of cells which become hypoploid. We interpret this partially protective effect as the consequence of a direct interaction of Bcl-2 with cytosolic cytochrome c previously released from mitochondria upon deltapsim decrease and/or of Bcl-2 inhibition of the deleterious retro-effect of caspase-3 on the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and/or the mitochondrial membrane components. (+info)
Self-assembly of laminin induced by acidic pH.
(72/2206)The supramolecular architecture of the basement membrane is provided by two enmeshed networks of collagen IV and laminin. The laminin network is maintained exclusively by interactions among individual laminin molecules and does not depend on the presence of other extracellular matrix components. Laminin polymers can be obtained in vitro either in solution or in association with the surface of bilayers containing acidic lipids. In this work, we have tested the hypothesis that the negative charges present on acidic lipids establish an acid microenvironment that is directly responsible for inducing laminin aggregation. Using light-scattering measurements, we show that laminin does not aggregate on vesicles of neutral lipids, whereas instantaneous aggregation occurs to progressively greater extents as the proportion of acidic phospholipids in the vesicles is increased. Aggregation of laminin induced by vesicles containing acidic phospholipids occurs very rapidly, so that maximal aggregation for each condition is reached within 1 min after laminin dilution. Aggregation depends on the presence of Ca(2+) ions, is reversed by increasing ionic strength, and can be detected at laminin concentrations as low as 6 nM. In addition, we show that, in the absence of vesicles, acidification of the bulk solution can also induce laminin self-polymerization through a process that exhibits the same properties as lipid-induced polymerization. The fact that there is a correspondence between the processes of self-polymerization of laminin in acidic medium and in neutral medium but in the presence of vesicles containing negatively charged lipids leads us to propose that the microenvironment of an acidic surface may trigger the assembly of laminin networks. In vivo, such an acidic microenvironment would be provided by negatively charged sialic acid and sulfate groups present in the glycocalyx surrounding the cells. (+info)