Host cell death due to enteropathogenic Escherichia coli has features of apoptosis.
(25/2206)Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a cause of prolonged watery diarrhea in children in developing countries. The ability of EPEC to kill host cells was investigated in vitro in assays using two human cultured cell lines, HeLa (cervical) and T84 (colonic). EPEC killed epithelial cells as assessed by permeability to the vital dyes trypan blue and propidium iodide. In addition, EPEC triggered changes in the host cell, suggesting apoptosis as the mode of death; such changes included early expression of phosphatidylserine on the host cell surface and internucleosomal cleavage of host cell DNA. Genistein, an inhibitor of tyrosine kinases, and wortmannin, an inhibitor of host phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, markedly increased EPEC-induced cell death and enhanced the features of apoptosis. EPEC-induced cell death was contact dependent and required adherence of live bacteria to the host cell. A quantitative assay for EPEC-induced cell death was developed by using the propidium iodide uptake method adapted to a fluorescence plate reader. With EPEC, the rate and extent of host cell death were less that what has been reported for Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia, three other genera of enteric bacteria known to cause apoptosis. However, rapid apoptosis of the host cell may not favor the pathogenic strategy of EPEC, a mucosa-adhering, noninvasive pathogen. (+info)
Microheterogeneity of beta-2 glycoprotein I: implications for binding to anionic phospholipids.
(26/2206)Considerable interest is currently focused on the interactions of beta-2 glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) and anti-phospholipid antibodies with anionic phospholipids in an attempt to understand the association between these antibodies and clinical diseases such as thrombosis. The interactions of beta2GPI and anionic phospholipids have only been characterized partially, and the physiological role of this glycoprotein remains uncertain. In this study we have explored in detail the physical and phospholipid-binding characteristics of a number of beta2GPI preparations. We have found (i) that perchloric acid-purification methods are damaging to beta2GPI during purification, (ii) that the dissociation constants of the various preparations for phosphatidylserine vary between 0. 1-2 microM and are considerably weaker than previously reported, (iii) that considerable differences in affinity of the various beta2GPI preparations for anionic phospholipids are obtained when comparing anionic phospholipids immobilized to a solid-phase versus phospholipid assembled in unilamellar vesicles, (iv) that the integrity of the fifth domain of beta2GPI is important for binding immobilized anionic phospholipid but not especially important in binding vesicular anionic phospholipid, and (v) that beta2GPI preparations with differing isoelectric species content bind anionic phospholipids differently, suggesting that varying glycosylation and/or protein polymorphisms impact upon phospholipid binding. These results highlight the importance of assessing the determinants of the interaction of beta2GPI with anionic phospholipids assembled in unilamellar vesicles. (+info)
Elevated levels of circulating procoagulant microparticles in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and aplastic anemia.
(27/2206)Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), frequently occurring during suppressed hematopoiesis including aplastic anemia (AA), is a clonal disorder associated with an increased incidence of thrombotic events. Complement-mediated hemolysis, impairment of the fibrinolytic system, or platelet activation are thought to be responsible for the associated thrombotic risk. We investigated here the elevation of membrane-derived procoagulant microparticles in the blood flow of such patients. Elevated levels of circulating microparticles were in fact detected in both de novo PNH patients and AA subjects with a PNH clone, but not in those with AA without a PNH clone. The cellular origin of the microparticles was determined in PNH samples; most stemmed from platelets. Glycophorin A+ particles were rarely detected. Therefore, platelet activation, resulting in the dissemination of procoagulant phospholipids in the blood flow, could be one of the main causes for the elevated thrombotic risk associated with PNH. These observations suggest that shed membrane particles can be considered a valuable biological parameter for the assessment of possible thrombotic complications in patients with PNH. (+info)
Semliki Forest virus mRNA capping enzyme requires association with anionic membrane phospholipids for activity.
(28/2206)The replication complexes of all positive strand RNA viruses of eukaryotes are associated with membranes. In the case of Semliki Forest virus (SFV), the main determinant of membrane attachment seems to be the virus-encoded non-structural protein NSP1, the capping enzyme of the viral mRNAs, which has guanine-7-methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase activities. We show here that both enzymatic activities of SFV NSP1 are inactivated by detergents and reactivated by anionic phospholipids, especially phosphatidylserine. The region of NSP1 responsible for binding to membranes as well as to liposomes was mapped to a short segment, which is conserved in the large alphavirus-like superfamily of viruses. A synthetic peptide of 20 amino acids from the putative binding site competed with in vitro synthesized NSP1 for binding to liposomes containing phosphatidylserine. These findings suggest a molecular mechanism by which RNA virus replicases attach to intracellular membranes and why they depend on the membranous environment. (+info)
Death signals from the B cell antigen receptor target mitochondria, activating necrotic and apoptotic death cascades in a murine B cell line, WEHI-231.
(29/2206)B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-mediated cell death has been proposed as a mechanism for purging the immune repertoire of anti-self specificities during B cell differentiation in bone marrow. Mitochondrial alterations and activation of caspases are required for certain aspects of apoptotic cell death, but how the mitochondria and caspases contribute to BCR-mediated cell death is not well understood. In the present study, we used the mouse WEHI-231 B cell line to demonstrate that mitochondrial alterations and activation of caspases are indeed participants in BCR-mediated cell death. The peptide inhibitor of caspases, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-fmk), blocked cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and various manifestation of nuclear apoptosis such as nuclear fragmentation, hypodiploidy and DNA fragmentation, indicating that signals from the BCR induced the activation of caspases. In addition, z-VAD-fmk delayed apoptosis-associated changes in cellular reduction-oxidation potentials as determined by hypergeneration of superoxide anion, as well as exposure of phosphatidylserine residues in the outer plasma membrane. By contrast, although z-VAD-fmk retarded cytolysis, it was incapable of preventing disruption of the plasma membrane even under the same condition in which it completely blocked nuclear apoptosis. Mitochondrial membrane potential loss was also not blocked by z-VAD-fmk. Bongkrekic acid, a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pores, suppressed not only the mitochondrial membrane potential but also the change of plasma membrane permeability. Overexpression of Bcl-xL prevented mitochondrial dysfunction, nuclear apoptosis and membrane permeability cell death triggered by BCR signal transduction. These observations indicate that death signals from BCR may first cause mitochondrial alterations followed by activation of both necrotic and apoptotic cascades. (+info)
Role of caspase in a subset of human platelet activation responses.
(30/2206)Platelets function to protect the integrity of the vascular wall. A subset of platelet activation responses that are especially important for thrombus formation include exposure of phosphatidylserine and release of microparticles, which generate procoagulant surfaces. The resemblance of these platelet activation processes to events occurring in nucleated cells undergoing apoptosis suggests a possible role for caspases, which are major effector enzymes of nucleated cell apoptosis. We demonstrate here the presence of caspase-3 in human platelets and its activation by physiological platelet agonists. Using cell-permeable specific inhibitors, we demonstrate a role for a caspase-3-like protease in the agonist-induced (collagen plus thrombin or Ca2+ ionophore) platelet activation events of phosphatidylserine exposure, microparticle release, and cleavage of moesin, a cytoskeletal-membrane linker protein. The role of caspase-3 in platelet activation is restricted rather than global, because other activation responses, alpha granule secretion, shape change, and aggregation were unaffected by caspase-3 inhibitors. Experiments with two classes of protease inhibitors show that caspase-3 function is distinct from that of calpain, which is also involved in late platelet activation events. These findings show novel functions of caspase and provide new insights for understanding of platelet activation. (+info)
Brefeldin A inhibited activity of the sec7 domain of p200, a mammalian guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factors.
(31/2206)A brefeldin A (BFA)-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein (GEP) for ADP-ribosylation factors (ARF) was purified earlier from bovine brain cytosol. Cloning and expression of the cDNA confirmed that the recombinant protein (p200) is a BFA-sensitive ARF GEP. p200 contains a domain that is 50% identical in amino acid sequence to a region in yeast Sec7, termed the Sec7 domain. Sec7 domains have been identified also in other proteins with ARF GEP activity, some of which are not inhibited by BFA. To identify structural elements that influence GEP activity and its BFA sensitivity, several truncated mutants of p200 were made. Deletion of sequence C-terminal to the Sec7 domain did not affect GEP activity. A protein lacking 594 amino acids at the N terminus, as well as sequence following the Sec7 domain, also had high activity. The mutant lacking 630 N-terminal amino acids was, however, only 1% as active, as was the Sec7 domain itself (mutant lacking 697 N-terminal residues). It appears that the Sec7 domain of p200 contains the catalytic site but additional sequence (perhaps especially that between positions 595 and 630) modifies activity dramatically. Myristoylated recombinant ARFs were better than non-myristoylated as substrates; ARFs 1 and 3 were better than ARF5, and no activity was detected with ARF6. Physical interaction of the Sec7 domain with an ARF1 mutant was demonstrated, but it was much weaker than that of the cytohesin-1 Sec7 domain with the same ARF protein. Effects of BFA on p200 and all mutants with high activity were similar with approximately 50% inhibition at +info)
Interaction of the anti-cancer drug cisplatin with phosphatidylserine in intact and semi-intact cells.
(32/2206)The anti-cancer drug cisplatin (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II)) forms a stable coordination complex with phosphatidylserine (PS) in model membrane systems (Speelmans et al., Biochemistry 36 (1997) 10545-10550). Because a similar interaction in vivo would be expected to have important physiological implications we studied cisplatin-PS interaction in human erythrocytes and tumor cell lines. Although cisplatin was efficiently taken up by intact erythrocytes, a cisplatin-PS complex was only detected in cells which had lysed as a result of prolonged storage or hypotonic shock. Despite the use of highly sensitive detection methods, and despite efficient cellular uptake of cisplatin, a complex could also not be detected in four human tumor cell lines, unless cells were permeabilized. In experiments in which cisplatin was incubated with PS-containing liposomes in the presence of an alternative cellular substrate, such as reduced glutathione, the relative affinity of cisplatin for PS was found to be low. Moreover, loading erythrocyte ghosts with physiological concentrations of glutathione strongly reduced cisplatin-PS complexation. Thus, in intact (tumor) cells a complex is not detected, most likely, because of the presence of higher affinity substrates. Though a transient complexation of cisplatin to PS cannot be excluded, our data suggest that cisplatin-PS does not play a direct role in the cellular (cyto)toxicity of cisplatin. (+info)