Dietary control of triglyceride and phospholipid synthesis in rat liver slices.
1. The effect of dietary manipulation on the synthesis of triglycerides and phospholipids was investigated by determining the incorporation of labeled long-chain fatty acid or glycerol into these lipids in liver slices derived from normally fed, fasted, and fat-free refed rats. 2. Triglyceride synthesis was affected markedly by the dietary regime of the animal; the lowest rates were measured with fasted rats, and the highest ones with fat-free refed rats. 3. In contrast to triglyceride synthesis, phospholipid synthesis occured at virtually constant rates regardless of the dietary conditions. 4. Addition of large amounts of fatty acid to the incubation mixture resulted in a marked stimulation of triglyceride synthesis, whereas phospholipid synthesis was affected to a much smaller extent. 5. These results indicate that the synthesis of triglycerides and that of phospholipids are controlled independently, and that the availability of fatty acid in the cell contributes to the control of triglyceride synthesis. (+info)
Reconstitution of the human endothelial cell protein C receptor with thrombomodulin in phosphatidylcholine vesicles enhances protein C activation.
Blocking protein C binding to the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) on the endothelium is known to reduce protein C activation rates. Now we isolate human EPCR and thrombomodulin (TM) and reconstitute them into phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The EPCR increases protein C activation rates in a concentration-dependent fashion that does not saturate at 14 EPCR molecules/TM. Without EPCR, the protein C concentration dependence fits a single class of sites (Km = 2.17 +/- 0.13 microM). With EPCR, two classes of sites are apparent (Km = 20 +/- 15 nM and Km = 3.2 +/- 1.7 microM). Increasing the EPCR concentration at a constant TM concentration increases the percentage of high affinity sites. Holding the TM:EPCR ratio constant while decreasing the density of these proteins results in a decrease in the EPCR enhancement of protein C activation, suggesting that there is little affinity of the EPCR for TM. Negatively charged phospholipids also enhance protein C activation. EPCR acceleration of protein C activation is blocked by anti-EPCR antibodies, but not by annexin V, whereas the reverse is true with negatively charged phospholipids. Human umbilical cord endothelium expresses approximately 7 times more EPCR than TM. Anti-EPCR antibody reduces protein C activation rates 7-fold over these cells, whereas annexin V is ineffective, indicating that EPCR rather than negatively charged phospholipid provide the surface for protein C activation. EPCR expression varies dramatically among vascular beds. The present results indicate that the EPCR concentration will determine the effectiveness of the protein C activation complex. (+info)
Molecular dynamics on a model for nascent high-density lipoprotein: role of salt bridges.
The results of an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation on a discoidal complex made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and a synthetic alpha-helical 18-mer peptide with an apolipoprotein-like charge distribution are presented. The system consists of 12 acetyl-18A-amide (Ac-18A-NH2) (. J. Biol. Chem. 260:10248-10255) molecules and 20 molecules of POPC in a bilayer, 10 in each leaflet, solvated in a sphere of water for a total of 28,522 atoms. The peptide molecules are oriented with their long axes normal to the bilayer (the "picket fence" orientation). This system is analogous to complexes formed in nascent high-density lipoprotein and to Ac-18A-NH2/phospholipid complexes observed experimentally. The simulation extended over 700 ps, with the last 493 ps used for analysis. The symmetry of this system allows for averaging over different helices to improve sampling, while maintaining explicit all-atom representation of all peptides. The complex is stable on the simulated time scale. Several possible salt bridges between and within helices were studied. A few salt bridge formations and disruptions were observed. Salt bridges provide specificity in interhelical interactions. (+info)
Morphological behavior of acidic and neutral liposomes induced by basic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides with systematically varied hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance.
Lipid-peptide interaction has been investigated using cationic amphiphilic alpha-helical peptides and systematically varying their hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance (HHB). The influence of the peptides on neutral and acidic liposomes was examined by 1) Trp fluorescence quenched by brominated phospholipid, 2) membrane-clearing ability, 3) size determination of liposomes by dynamic light scattering, 4) morphological observation by electron microscopy, and 5) ability to form planar lipid bilayers from channels. The peptides examined consist of hydrophobic Leu and hydrophilic Lys residues with ratios 13:5, 11:7, 9:9, 7:11, and 5:13 (abbreviated as Hels 13-5, 11-7, 9-9, 7-11, and 5-13, respectively; Kiyota, T., S. Lee, and G. Sugihara. 1996. Biochemistry. 35:13196-13204). The most hydrophobic peptide (Hel 13-5) induced a twisted ribbon-like fibril structure for egg PC liposomes. In a 3/1 (egg PC/egg PG) lipid mixture, Hel 13-5 addition caused fusion of the liposomes. Hel 13-5 formed ion channels in neutral lipid bilayer (egg PE/egg PC = 7/3) at low peptide concentrations, but not in an acidic bilayer (egg PE/brain PS = 7/3). The peptides with hydrophobicity less than Hel 13-5 (Hels 11-7 and Hel 9-9) were able to partially immerse their hydrophobic part of the amphiphilic helix in lipid bilayers and fragment liposome to small bicelles or micelles, and then the bicelles aggregated to form a larger assembly. Peptides Hel 11-7 and Hel 9-9 each formed strong ion channels. Peptides (Hel 7-11 and Hel 5-13) with a more hydrophilic HHB interacted with an acidic lipid bilayer by charge interaction, in which the former immerses the hydrophobic part in lipid bilayer, and the latter did not immerse, and formed large assemblies by aggregation of original liposomes. The present study clearly showed that hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance of a peptide is a crucial factor in understanding lipid-peptide interactions. (+info)
Localization and environment of tryptophans in soluble and membrane-bound states of a pore-forming toxin from Staphylococcus aureus.
The location and environment of tryptophans in the soluble and membrane-bound forms of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin were monitored using intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Fluorescence quenching of the toxin monomer in solution indicated varying degrees of tryptophan burial within the protein interior. N-Bromosuccinimide readily abolished 80% of the fluorescence in solution. The residual fluorescence of the modified toxin showed a blue-shifted emission maximum, a longer fluorescence lifetime as compared to the unmodified and membrane-bound alpha-toxin, and a 5- to 6-nm red edge excitation shift, all indicating a restricted tryptophan environment and deeply buried tryptophans. In the membrane-bound form, the fluorescence of alpha-toxin was quenched by iodide, indicating a conformational change leading to exposure of some tryptophans. A shorter average lifetime of tryptophans in the membrane-bound alpha-toxin as compared to the native toxin supported the conclusions based on iodide quenching of the membrane-bound toxin. Fluorescence quenching of membrane-bound alpha-toxin using brominated and spin-labeled fatty acids showed no quenching of fluorescence using brominated lipids. However, significant quenching was observed using 5- and 12-doxyl stearic acids. An average depth calculation using the parallax method indicated that the doxyl-quenchable tryptophans are located at an average depth of 10 A from the center of the bilayer close to the membrane interface. This was found to be in striking agreement with the recently described structure of the membrane-bound form of alpha-toxin. (+info)
Platelet high affinity low density lipoprotein binding and import of lipoprotein derived phospholipids.
The binding of low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the platelet cell membrane could facilitate the transfer of phospholipids from LDL to the platelets. A polyclonal antibody against the platelet glycoproteins IIb/IIIa inhibited the high affinity binding of 125I-LDL by up to 80%. The transfer of pyrene (py)-labeled sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine from LDL to the platelets was unaffected by the antibody. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) reduced the binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by approximately 80%. In contrast, the lectin stimulated the transfer of SM from LDL into the platelets by about three-fold. WGA also specifically augmented the transfer of py-SM between lipid vesicles and the platelets, the stimulation being abolished in the presence of N-acetylglucosamine. Dextran sulfate (DS) increased the specific binding of 125I-LDL to the platelets by up to 2.8-fold. On the other hand, the import of LDL-derived py-phospholipids was unaffected by DS. Together, the results indicate that the phospholipid transfer from LDL to the platelets is independent of the high affinity LDL binding to the platelets and is specifically stimulated by WGA. Thus, the interactions of platelets with LDL phospholipids differ markedly from those with the apoprotein components of the lipoproteins. (+info)
Phospholipid-subclass-specific partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane-water systems.
Herein, we systematically investigate phospholipid-subclass-specific alterations in the partitioning of both cationic and anionic amphiphiles to identify the importance of ester, ether and vinyl ether linkages at the sn-1 position of phospholipids in the partitioning of charged amphiphiles. The results demonstrated that the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic cationic amphiphile (i.e. 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) was approximately 2.5 times higher in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine in comparison with membranes comprised of either phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. In striking contrast, the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic anionic amphiphile [i.e. bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol] in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was approximately 2.5 times lower than that manifest in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. Utilizing theseexperimentally determined partition coefficients,the relative membrane dipole potential of membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was calculated and found to be approximately 25 mV lower than in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. This lower membrane dipole potential in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine is equivalent to the membrane potential induced by incorporation of approximately 25 mol% of anionic phospholipids in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that phospholipid-subclass-specific differences in the membrane dipole potential contribute to alterations in the partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane bilayers comprised of distinct phospholipid subclasses. Moreover, they suggest that these physicochemical differences can be exploited to facilitate the targeting of charged lipophilic drugs to specific cells and subcellular membrane compartments. (+info)
Predominant VH genes expressed in innate antibodies are associated with distinctive antigen-binding sites.
Antibodies to phosphatidylcholine (PtC), a common constituent of mammalian and bacterial cell membranes, represent a large proportion of the natural antibody repertoire in mice. Previous studies of several mouse strains (e.g., C57BL/6) have shown that anti-PtC antibodies are mainly encoded by the VH11 and VH12 immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene families. We show here, however, that VH11 and VH12 encode only a small proportion of the anti-PtC antibodies in BALB/c mice. Instead, VHQ52-encoded antibodies predominate in this strain. In addition, two-thirds of the cells expressing VHQ52 family genes use a single gene (which, interestingly, has been previously shown to predominate in the anti-oxazolone response). We also show here that in anti-PtC antibodies from all strains, the distinctive antigen-binding sites associated with VHQ52 differ substantially from those associated with VH11 and VH12. That is, VHQ52-containing transcripts preferentially use the joining region JH4 rather than JH1 and exhibit more diverse complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) junctions with more N-region nucleotide additions at the gene segment junctions. Thus, the VH gene family that predominates in the anti-PtC repertoire differs among mouse strains, whereas the distinctive VHDJH rearrangements (CDR3, JH) associated with each VH gene family are similar in all strains. We discuss these findings in the context of a recent hypothesis suggesting that CDR3 structure, independent of VH framework, is sufficient to define the specificity of an antibody. (+info)