The LPP1 and DPP1 gene products account for most of the isoprenoid phosphate phosphatase activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, LPP1 and DPP1, with homology to a mammalian phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphatase were identified and disrupted. Neither single nor combined deletions resulted in growth or secretion phenotypes. As observed previously (Toke, D. A., Bennett, W. L., Dillon, D. A., Wu, W.-I., Chen, X., Ostrander, D. B., Oshiro, J., Cremesti, A., Voelker, D. R., Fischl, A. S., and Carman, G. M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 3278-3284; Toke, D. A., Bennett, W. L., Oshiro, J., Wu, W.-I., Voelker, D. R., and Carman, G. M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 14331-14338), the disruption of DPP1 and LPP1 produced profound losses of Mg2+-independent PA phosphatase activity. The coincident attenuation of hydrolytic activity against diacylglycerol pyrophosphate prompted an examination of the effects of these disruptions on hydrolysis of isoprenoid pyrophosphates. Disruption of either LPP1 or DPP1 caused respective decreases of about 25 and 75% in Mg2+-independent hydrolysis of several isoprenoid phosphates by particulate fractions isolated from these cells. The particulate and cytosolic fractions from the double disruption (lpp1Delta dpp1Delta) showed essentially complete loss of Mg2+-independent hydrolytic activity toward dolichyl phosphate (dolichyl-P), dolichyl pyrophosphate (dolichyl-P-P), farnesyl pyrophosphate (farnesyl-P-P), and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (geranylgeranyl-P-P). However, a modest Mg2+-stimulated activity toward PA and dolichyl-P was retained in cytosol from lpp1Delta dpp1Delta cells. The action of Dpp1p on isoprenyl pyrophosphates was confirmed by characterization of the hydrolysis of geranylgeranyl-P-P by the purified protein. These results indicate that LPP1 and DPP1 account for most of the hydrolytic activities toward dolichyl-P-P, dolichyl-P, farnesyl-P-P, and geranylgeranyl-P-P but also suggest that yeast contain other enzymes capable of dephosphorylating these essential isoprenoid intermediates. (+info)
Lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase (LPP)-1 cDNA was cloned from a rat liver cDNA library. It codes for a 32-kDa protein that shares 87 and 82% amino acid sequence identities with putative products of murine and human LPP-1 cDNAs, respectively. Membrane fractions of rat2 fibroblasts that stably expressed mouse or rat LPP-1 exhibited 3.1-3. 6-fold higher specific activities for phosphatidate dephosphorylation compared with vector controls. Increases in the dephosphorylation of lysophosphatidate, ceramide 1-phosphate, sphingosine 1-phosphate and diacylglycerol pyrophosphate were similar to those for phosphatidate. Rat2 fibroblasts expressing mouse LPP-1 cDNA showed 1.6-2.3-fold increases in the hydrolysis of exogenous lysophosphatidate, phosphatidate and ceramide 1-phosphate compared with vector control cells. Recombinant LPP-1 was located partially in plasma membranes with its C-terminus on the cytosolic surface. Lysophosphatidate dephosphorylation was inhibited by extracellular Ca2+ and this inhibition was diminished by extracellular Mg2+. Changing intracellular Ca2+ concentrations did not alter exogenous lysophosphatidate dephosphorylation significantly. Permeabilized fibroblasts showed relatively little latency for the dephosphorylation of exogenous lysophosphatidate. LPP-1 expression decreased the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and DNA synthesis by exogenous lysophosphatidate. The product of LPP-1 cDNA is concluded to act partly to degrade exogenous lysophosphatidate and thereby regulate its effects on cell signalling. (+info)
Structural organization of mammalian lipid phosphate phosphatases: implications for signal transduction.
This article describes the regulation of cell signaling by lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) that control the conversion of bioactive lipid phosphates to their dephosphorylated counterparts. A structural model of the LPPs, that were previously called Type 2 phosphatidate phosphatases, is described. LPPs are characterized by having no Mg(2+) requirement and their insensitivity to inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide. The LPPs have six putative transmembrane domains and three highly conserved domains that define a phosphatase superfamily. The conserved domains are juxtaposed to the proposed membrane spanning domains such that they probably form the active sites of the phosphatases. It is predicted that the active sites of the LPPs are exposed at the cell surface or on the luminal surface of intracellular organelles, such as Golgi or the endoplasmic reticulum, depending where various LPPs are expressed. LPPs could attenuate cell activation by dephosphorylating bioactive lipid phosphate esters such as phosphatidate, lysophosphatidate, sphingosine 1-phosphate and ceramide 1-phosphate. In so doing, the LPPs could generate alternative signals from diacylglycerol, sphingosine and ceramide. The LPPs might help to modulate cell signaling by the phospholipase D pathway. For example, phosphatidate generated within the cell by phospholipase D could be converted by an LPP to diacylglycerol. This should change the relative balance of signaling by these two lipids. Another possible function of the LPPs relates to the secretion of lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate by activated platelets and other cells. These exogenous lipids activate phospholipid growth factor receptors on the surface of cells. LPP activities could attenuate cell activation by lysophosphatidate and sphingosine 1-phosphate through their respective receptors. (+info)
Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression by phosphatidate phosphohydrolase in human amnionic WISH cells.
Prostaglandins are known to play a key role in the initiation of labor in humans, but the mechanisms governing their synthesis in amnion are largely unknown. In this study, we have examined the regulatory pathways for prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production during protein kinase C-dependent activation of human WISH cells. In these cells, PGE(2) synthesis appears to be limited not by free arachidonic acid availability but by the expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Concomitant with the cells being able to synthesize and secrete PGE(2), we detected significant elevations of both COX-2 protein and mRNA levels. Specific inhibition of COX-2 by NS-398 totally ablated PGE(2) synthesis. All of these responses were found to be strikingly dependent on an active phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 (PAP-1). Inhibition of PAP-1 activity by three different strategies (i.e. use of bromoenol lactone, propranolol, and ethanol) resulted in inhibition of COX-2 expression and hence of PGE(2) production. These data unveil a novel signaling mechanism for the regulation of PGE(2) production via regulation of COX-2 expression and implicate phosphatidate phosphohydrolase 1 as a key regulatory component of eicosanoid metabolic pathways in the amnion. (+info)
Sequential actions of phospholipase D and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase 2b generate diglyceride in mammalian cells.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major source of lipid-derived second messenger molecules that function as both intracellular and extracellular signals. PC-specific phospholipase D (PLD) and phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase (PAP) are two pivotal enzymes in this signaling system, and they act in series to generate the biologically active lipids phosphatidic acid (PA) and diglyceride. The identity of the PAP enzyme involved in PLD-mediated signal transduction is unclear. We provide the first evidence for a functional role of a type 2 PAP, PAP2b, in the metabolism of PLD-generated PA. Our data indicate that PAP2b localizes to regions of the cell in which PC hydrolysis by PLD is taking place. Using a newly developed PAP2b-specific antibody, we have characterized the expression, posttranslational modification, and localization of endogenous PAP2b. Glycosylation and localization of PAP2b appear to be cell type and tissue specific. Biochemical fractionation and immunoprecipitation analyses revealed that PAP2b and PLD2 activities are present in caveolin-1-enriched detergent-resistant membrane microdomains. We found that PLD2 and PAP2b act sequentially to generate diglyceride within this specialized membrane compartment. The unique lipid composition of these membranes may provide a selective environment for the regulation and actions of enzymes involved in signaling through PC hydrolysis. (+info)
Identification of structurally important domains of lipid phosphate phosphatase-1: implications for its sites of action.
Lipid phosphate phosphatase-1 (LPP-1) dephosphorylates exogenous lysophosphatidate and thereby regulates the activation of lysophosphatidate receptors and cell division. Mutation of seven amino acids in three conserved domains of mouse LPP-1 abolished its activity. A glycosylation site was demonstrated between conserved Domains 1 and 2. LPP-1 is expressed in the plasma membrane, and the present results demonstrate the active site to be located on the outer surface. (+info)
Enzymological properties of the LPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The product of the LPP1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a membrane-associated enzyme that catalyzes the Mg(2+)-independent dephosphorylation of phosphatidate (PA), diacylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP), and lysophosphatidate (LPA). The LPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase was overexpressed 681-fold in Sf-9 insect cells and used to examine the enzymological properties of the enzyme using PA, DGPP, and LPA as substrates. The optimum pH values for PA phosphatase, DGPP phosphatase, and LPA phosphatase activities were 7. 5, 7.0, and 7.0, respectively. Divalent cations (Mn(2+), Co(2+), and Ca(2+)), NaF, heavy metals, propranolol, phenylglyoxal, and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited the PA phosphatase, DGPP phosphatase, and LPA phosphatase activities of the enzyme. The inhibitory effects of N-ethylmaleimide and phenylglyoxal on the LPP1-encoded enzyme were novel properties when compared with other Mg(2+)-independent lipid phosphate phosphatases from S. cerevisiae and mammalian cells. The LPP1-encoded enzyme exhibited saturation kinetics with respect to the surface concentrations of PA (K(m)=0.05 mol%), DGPP (K(m)=0.07 mol%), and LPA (K(m)=0.08 mol%). Based on specificity constants (V(max)/K(m)LPA (1.3 units/mg/mol%). DGPP (K(i)=0.12 mol%) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to PA, and PA (K(i)=0.12 mol%) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to DGPP. This suggested that the binding sites for these substrates were the same. The enzymological properties of the LPP1-encoded enzyme differed significantly from those of the S. cerevisiae DPP1-encoded lipid phosphatase, a related enzyme that also utilizes PA, DGPP, and LPA as substrates. (+info)
Cell surface activities of the human type 2b phosphatidic acid phosphatase.
Several isozymes of mammalian type 2, Mg(2+)-independent phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP-2) have recently been cloned, and they are predicted to have their catalytic sites exposed at the cell surface membranes. We investigated the mode of utilization of extracellular lipid substrates by the human PAP-2b expressed in HEK293 cells as a green fluorescent fusion protein. We first confirmed the plasma membrane localization of the expressed PAP-2b. PAP-2b actively hydrolyzed exogenously added lysophosphatidic acid and short-chain phosphatidic acid. In the case of dephosphorylation of lysophosphatidic acid, the reaction products, including inorganic phosphate and monoacylglycerol, were recovered exclusively in the extracellular medium. Interestingly, PAP-2b exhibited negligible activities toward long-chain phosphatidic acid either exogenously when added or generated within the membranes by treating the cells with bacterial phospholipase D. These findings indicate that PAP-2b acts at the outer leaflet of cell surface bilayers and can account for the ecto-PAP activities previously described for various types of cells. (+info)