Towards the reaction mechanism of pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase of Pelobacter acidigallici.
Conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol was studied with the molybdenum enzyme transhydroxylase of the strictly anaerobic fermenting bacterium Pelobacter acidigallici. Transhydroxylation experiments in H218O revealed that none of the hydroxyl groups of phloroglucinol was derived from water, confirming the concept that this enzyme transfers a hydroxyl group from the cosubstrate 1,2,3, 5-tetrahydroxybenzene (tetrahydroxybenzene) to the acceptor pyrogallol, and simultaneously regenerates the cosubstrate. This concept requires a reaction which synthesizes the cofactor de novo to maintain a sufficiently high intracellular pool during growth. Some sulfoxides and aromatic N-oxides were found to act as hydroxyl donors to convert pyrogallol to tetrahydroxybenzene. Again, water was not the source of the added hydroxyl groups; the oxides reacted as cosubstrates in a transhydroxylation reaction rather than as true oxidants in a net hydroxylation reaction. No oxidizing agent was found that supported a formation of tetrahydroxybenzene via a net hydroxylation of pyrogallol. However, conversion of pyrogallol to phloroglucinol in the absence of tetrahydroxybenzene was achieved if little pyrogallol and a high amount of enzyme preparation was used which had been pre-exposed to air. Obviously, the enzyme was oxidized by air to form sufficient amounts of tetrahydroxybenzene from pyrogallol to start the reaction. A reaction mechanism is proposed which combines an oxidative hydroxylation with a reductive dehydroxylation via the molybdenum cofactor, and allows the transfer of a hydroxyl group between tetrahydroxybenzene and pyrogallol without involvement of water. With this, the transhydroxylase differs basically from all other hydroxylating molybdenum enzymes which all use water as hydroxyl source. (+info)
Promotion of antibiotic production by high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or heat shock in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272.
A stress imposed by a continuous feed of high ethanol, high NaCl concentration, or a high temperature shock increased antibiotic production by several times in Pseudomonas fluorescens S272. A tentative bioassay showed that the stress caused about 40-fold elevation in the autoinducer activity. Addition of synthetic autoinducers, N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone or N-(3-oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone at a concentration of more than 100 micrograms/l to a non-stressed culture also increased the antibiotic production by several times. These results suggested that the antibiotic production in P. fluorescens S272 was regulated by N-acyl-homoserine lactone and the promotive effect by stress occurred through any function that increased the autoinducer production. (+info)
Identification and characterization of a gene cluster for synthesis of the polyketide antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol from Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87.
The polyketide metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) is produced by many strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity against soilborne fungal plant pathogens. Genes required for 2,4-DAPG synthesis by P. fluorescens Q2-87 are encoded by a 6.5-kb fragment of genomic DNA that can transfer production of 2,4-DAPG to 2,4-DAPG-nonproducing recipient Pseudomonas strains. In this study the nucleotide sequence was determined for the 6.5-kb fragment and flanking regions of genomic DNA from strain Q2-87. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which (phlACBD) comprise an operon that includes a set of three genes (phlACB) conserved between eubacteria and archaebacteria and a gene (phlD) encoding a polyketide synthase with homology to chalcone and stilbene synthases from plants. The biosynthetic operon is flanked on either side by phlE and phlF, which code respectively for putative efflux and regulatory (repressor) proteins. Expression in Escherichia coli of phlA, phlC, phlB, and phlD, individually or in combination, identified a novel polyketide biosynthetic pathway in which PhlD is responsible for the production of monoacetylphloroglucinol (MAPG). PhlA, PhlC, and PhlB are necessary to convert MAPG to 2,4-DAPG, and they also may function in the synthesis of MAPG. (+info)
Environmental factors modulating antibiotic and siderophore biosynthesis by Pseudomonas fluorescens biocontrol strains.
Understanding the environmental factors that regulate the biosynthesis of antimicrobial compounds by disease-suppressive strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens is an essential step toward improving the level and reliability of their biocontrol activity. We used liquid culture assays to identify several minerals and carbon sources which had a differential influence on the production of the antibiotics 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (PHL), pyoluteorin (PLT), and pyrrolnitrin and the siderophores salicylic acid and pyochelin by the model strain CHA0, which was isolated from a natural disease-suppressive soil in Switzerland. Production of PHL was stimulated by Zn2+, NH4Mo2+, and glucose; the precursor compound mono-acetylphloroglucinol was stimulated by the same factors as PHL. Production of PLT was stimulated by Zn2+, Co2+, and glycerol but was repressed by glucose. Pyrrolnitrin production was increased by fructose, mannitol, and a mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+. Pyochelin production was increased by Co2+, fructose, mannitol, and glucose. Interestingly, production of its precursor salicylic acid was increased by different factors, i.e., NH4Mo2+, glycerol, and glucose. The mixture of Zn2+ and NH4Mo2+ with fructose, mannitol, or glycerol further enhanced the production of PHL and PLT compared with either the minerals or the carbon sources used alone, but it did not improve siderophore production. Extending fermentation time from 2 to 5 days increased the accumulation of PLT, pyrrolnitrin, and pyochelin but not of PHL. When findings with CHA0 were extended to an ecologically and genetically diverse collection of 41 P. fluorescens biocontrol strains, the effect of certain factors was strain dependent, while others had a general effect. Stimulation of PHL by Zn2+ and glucose was strain dependent, whereas PLT production by all strains that can produce this compound was stimulated by Zn2+ and transiently repressed by glucose. Inorganic phosphate reduced PHL production by CHA0 and seven other strains tested but to various degrees. Production of PLT but not pyrrolnitrin by CHA0 was also reduced by 100 mM phosphate. The use of 1/10-strength nutrient broth-yeast extract, compared with standard nutrient broth-yeast extract, amended with glucose and/or glycerol resulted in dramatically increased accumulations of PHL (but not PLT), pyochelin, and salicylic acid, indicating that the ratio of carbon source to nutrient concentration played a key role in the metabolic flow. The results of this study (i) provide insight into the biosynthetic regulation of antimicrobial compounds, (ii) limit the number of factors for intensive study in situ, and (iii) indicate factors that can be manipulated to improve bacterial inoculants. (+info)
Hyperforin, a major antidepressant constituent of St. John's Wort, inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating free intracellular Na+1.
Extracts of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort) are widely used for the treatment of depressive disorders and are unspecific inhibitors of the neuronal uptake of several neurotransmitters. Previous studies have shown that hyperforin represents the reuptake inhibiting constituent. To characterize the mechanism of serotonin reuptake inhibition, kinetic analyses in synaptosomes of mouse brain were performed. Michaelis-Menten kinetics revealed that hyperforin (2 microM) induces a decrease in V(max) by more than 50% while only slightly decreasing K(m), indicating mainly noncompetitive inhibition. By contrast, citalopram (1 nM) leads to an elevation of K(m) without changing V(max). Monensin, a Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, showed similar properties as hyperforin (decrease of V(max) without changing K(m)). Compared with classical antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants, hyperforin is only a weak inhibitor of [(3)H]paroxetine binding relative to its effects on serotonin uptake. As monensin decreases serotonin uptake by increasing Na(+)/H(+) exchange, we compared the effects of hyperforin and monensin on the free intracellular sodium concentration ([Na(+)](i)) in platelets by measuring 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 4,4'-[1,4,10-trioxa-7, 13-diazacyclopentadecan-7,13-diylbis(5-methoxy-6, 2-benzofurandiyl)]bis-, tetraammonium salt (SBFI/AM) fluorescence. Both drugs elevated [Na(+)](i) over basal levels, with a maximal [Na(+)](i) of 69 +/- 16.1 mM (50 microM hyperforin) and 140 +/- 9.1 mM (10 microM monensin). Citalopram at concentrations relevant for [(3)H]serotonin uptake inhibition had no effect on [Na(+)](i). Although the mode of action of hyperforin seems to be associated with elevated [Na(+)](i) similar to those levels found with monensin, the molecular mechanism might be different, as even at high concentrations, hyperforin does not elevate free intracellular sodium concentration ([Na(+)](i)) up to the extracellular level, as monensin does. Hyperforin represents the first substance with a known preclinical antidepressant profile that inhibits serotonin uptake by elevating [Na(+)](i). (+info)
Cloning, sequencing and heterologous expression of pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase from Pelobacter acidigallici.
A genomic lambda-library of Pelobacter acidigallici has been established. Proteolytic digestion of homogeneous pyrogallol-phloroglucinol transhydroxylase from the same microorganism afforded polypeptide fragments whose N-terminal sequences allowed the generation of oligonucleotide primers. Together with primers deduced from the known N-terminal sequences of the two intact subunits these were used in PCR experiments to obtain three amplificates. Screening the lambda-library with the three amplificates led eventually to clones containing the whole gene coding for the transhydroxylase. Sequencing the gene revealed two open reading frames coding for 875 and 275 amino acids which correspond to the alpha- and beta-subunits of THL, respectively. The two subunits are separated by a 48-bp noncoding region. Comparison of the sequence with those of other molybdopterin cofactor (MoCo)-enzymes places THL in the dimethylsulfoxide reductase family. Possible contact sites to the MoCo and to the iron-sulphur clusters were spotted. Using the expression vectors pQE 30 and pT 7-7 three constructs harbouring the THL gene were created. One of them carried a His6-tag at the N-terminus of the alpha-subunit, another at the C-terminus of the beta-subunit. Immunoblot analysis showed high expression of THL, but the inclusion bodies could not be refolded to active enzyme. (+info)
Autoinduction of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol biosynthesis in the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 and repression by the bacterial metabolites salicylate and pyoluteorin.
The antimicrobial metabolite 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) contributes to the capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 to control plant diseases caused by soilborne pathogens. A 2, 4-DAPG-negative Tn5 insertion mutant of strain CHA0 was isolated, and the nucleotide sequence of the 4-kb genomic DNA region adjacent to the Tn5 insertion site was determined. Four open reading frames were identified, two of which were homologous to phlA, the first gene of the 2,4-DAPG biosynthetic operon, and to the phlF gene encoding a pathway-specific transcriptional repressor. The Tn5 insertion was located in an open reading frame, tentatively named phlH, which is not related to known phl genes. In wild-type CHA0, 2, 4-DAPG production paralleled expression of a phlA'-'lacZ translational fusion, reaching a maximum in the late exponential growth phase. Thereafter, the compound appeared to be degraded to monoacetylphloroglucinol by the bacterium. 2,4-DAPG was identified as the active compound in extracts from culture supernatants of strain CHA0 specifically inducing phlA'-'lacZ expression about sixfold during exponential growth. Induction by exogenous 2,4-DAPG was most conspicuous in a phlA mutant, which was unable to produce 2, 4-DAPG. In a phlF mutant, 2,4-DAPG production was enhanced severalfold and phlA'-'lacZ was expressed at a level corresponding to that in the wild type with 2,4-DAPG added. The phlF mutant was insensitive to 2,4-DAPG addition. A transcriptional phlA-lacZ fusion was used to demonstrate that the repressor PhlF acts at the level of transcription. Expression of phlA'-'lacZ and 2,4-DAPG synthesis in strain CHA0 was strongly repressed by the bacterial extracellular metabolites salicylate and pyoluteorin as well as by fusaric acid, a toxin produced by the pythopathogenic fungus Fusarium. In the phlF mutant, these compounds did not affect phlA'-'lacZ expression and 2, 4-DAPG production. PhlF-mediated induction by 2,4-DAPG and repression by salicylate of phlA'-'lacZ expression was confirmed by using Escherichia coli as a heterologous host. In conclusion, our results show that autoinduction of 2,4-DAPG biosynthesis can be countered by certain bacterial (and fungal) metabolites. This mechanism, which depends on phlF function, may help P. fluorescens to produce homeostatically balanced amounts of extracellular metabolites. (+info)
Frequency and biodiversity of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing bacteria isolated from the maize rhizosphere at different stages of plant growth.
A Pseudomonas 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing population that occurred naturally on the roots, in rhizosphere soil of Zea mays and in the nonrhizosphere soil was investigated in order to assess the microbial diversity at five stages of plant growth. A total of 1,716 isolates were obtained, and 188 of these isolates were able to produce DAPG. DAPG producers were isolated at each stage of plant growth, indicating that the maize rhizosphere is colonized by natural DAPG producers throughout development. The frequency of DAPG producers was very low in the first stage of plant growth and increased over time. An analysis of the level of biodiversity of the DAPG producers at the species level was performed by comparing the AluI restriction patterns of the 16S ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) amplified by PCR from 167 isolates. This comparison allowed us to cluster the isolates into four amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) groups, and the main group (ARDRA group 1) contained 89.8% of the isolates. The diversity of the 150 isolates belonging to ARDRA group 1 was analyzed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. An analysis of RAPD patterns by a molecular variance method revealed that there was a high level of genetic diversity in this population and that the genetic diversity was related to plant age. Finally, we found that some of the DAPG producers, which originated from all stages of plant growth, had the same genotype. These DAPG producers could be exploited in future screening programs for biocontrol agents. (+info)