Detection of Toscana virus-specific immunoglobulins G and M by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant viral nucleoprotein.
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the recombinant Toscana virus nucleoprotein (rN) has been developed. Its sensitivity and specificity for the detection of virus-specific immunoglobulins G and M in human sera were similar to those of the ELISA that is based on an antigen extracted from infected mouse brain and that is routinely used for serodiagnosis. (+info)
Seroprevalence of West Nile, Rift Valley, and sandfly arboviruses in Hashimiah, Jordan.
We conducted a serosurvey among patients of a health center in Hashimiah, a Jordanian town of 30,000 inhabitants located near a wastewater treatment plant and its effluent channel. Serum samples from 261 patients >/=5 years of age were assessed for immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies against West Nile, sandfly Sicilian, sandfly Naples, and Rift Valley viruses; the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies was 8%, 47%, 30%, and 0%, respectively. Female participants were more likely to have been infected than male. Persons living within 2 km of the treatment plant were more likely to have been infected with West Nile (p=0.016) and sandfly Sicilian (p=0.010) viruses. Raising domestic animals within the house was a risk factor for sandfly Sicilian (p=0.003) but not for sandfly Naples virus (p=0.148). All serum samples were negative for IgM antibodies against the tested viruses. Our study is the first documentation of West Nile and sandfly viruses in Jordan and calls attention to the possible health hazards of living close to wastewater treatment plants and their effluent channels. (+info)
Encephalitis without meningitis due to sandfly fever virus serotype toscana.
The role of Toscana (TOS) virus in producing encephalitis without meningitis is uncertain. We studied 2 cases of TOS virus encephalitis without meningitis by means of nested polymerase chain reaction assay and DNA sequencing. Findings confirm that TOS virus may directly cause encephalitis and suggest the usefulness of DNA sequencing in investigating relationships between TOS virus molecular patterns and the spectrum of neurological involvement. (+info)
Phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) based on partial M segment sequence analyses.
Viruses in the Phlebovirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae cause clinical syndromes ranging from a short, self-limiting febrile illness to fatal haemorrhagic fever. The genus currently consists of 68 antigenically distinct virus serotypes, most of which have not been genetically characterized. RT-PCR with four 'cocktail' primers was performed to amplify a region of the M segment of the genome of 24 phleboviruses included in the sandfly fever Naples, sandfly fever Sicilian and Punta Toro serocomplexes. Partial M segment sequences were successfully obtained and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The three resultant genotypic lineages were consistent with serological data. The sequence divergences were 27.6 % (nucleotide) and 25.7 % (amino acid) within the Sicilian serocomplex, 33.7 % (nucleotide) and 34.4 % (amino acid) within the Naples serocomplex and 35.6 % (nucleotide) and 37.5 % (amino acid) within the Punta Toro serocomplex. Overall, the diversities among viruses of Sicilian, Naples and Punta Toro serocomplexes were 48.2 % and 57.6 % at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. This high genetic divergence may explain the difficulties in designing a consensus primer pair for the amplification of all the phleboviruses using RT-PCR. It also suggests that infection with one genotype may not completely immunize against infection with all other genotypes in a given serocomplex. These findings have implications for potential vaccine development and may help explain clinical reports of multiple episodes of sandfly fever in the same individual. (+info)
Serological survey of Toscana virus infections in a high-risk population in Italy.
Toscana virus is the most important agent responsible for meningitis in central Italy. We report a serosurveillance study, using an immunoenzymatic assay, of 360 serum samples harvested from a high-risk population occupationally exposed to Toscana virus in two regions of Italy, Tuscany and Piedmont. The results indicates a seroprevalence of Toscana virus of 77.2% in the forestry workers, particularly in the Tuscany region. This fact is strictly correlated with the ecological niches specific for the survival of Toscana virus arthropod vector. (+info)
Unusual presentation of life-threatening Toscana virus meningoencephalitis.
This case report describes a brother and a sister with severe meningoencephalitis caused by Toscana virus (TOSv). The clinical presentation was characterized by stiff neck, deep coma, maculopapular rash, diffuse lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, renal involvement, tendency to bleeding, and diffuse intravascular coagulation. The boy had epididymo-orchitis. Recovery with neurologic sequelae as hydrocephalus was observed. Microbiological diagnosis was obtained by serological tests and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products from the S and M segments was carried out. TOSv may be a causative agent in severe meningoencephalitis. (+info)
Emergence of Toscana virus in Europe.
Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne virus first identified in 1971 from the sandfly Phlebotomus perniciosus in central Italy. Many case reports in travelers and clinical research and epidemiologic studies conducted around the Mediterranean region have shown that TOSV has a tropism for the central nervous system (CNS) and is a major cause of meningitis and encephalitis in countries in which it circulates. In central Italy, TOSV is the most frequent cause of meningitis from May to October, far exceeding enteroviruses. In other northern Mediterranean countries, TOSV is among the 3 most prevalent viruses associated with meningitis during the warm seasons. Therefore, TOSV must be considered an emerging pathogen. Here, we review the epidemiology of TOSV in Europe and determine questions that should be addressed in future studies. Despite increasing evidence of its major role in medicine as an emerging cause of CNS infections, TOSV remains an unstudied pathogen, and few physicians are aware of its potential to cause CNS infections. (+info)
Toscana virus in Spain.
Toscana virus (TOSV, Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae) infection is one of the most prevalent arboviruses in Spain. Within the objectives of a multidisciplinary network, a study on the epidemiology of TOSV was conducted in Granada, in southern Spain. The overall seroprevalence rate was 24.9%, significantly increasing with age. TOSV was detected in 3 of 103 sandfly pools by viral culture or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from a region of the L gene. Nucleotide sequence homology was 99%-100% in TOSV from vectors and patients and 80%-81% compared to the Italian strain ISS Phl.3. Sequencing of the N gene of TOSV isolates from patients and vectors indicated 87%-88% and 100% homology at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively, compared to the Italian strain. These findings demonstrate the circulation of at least 2 different lineages of TOSV in the Mediterranean basin, the Italian lineage and the Spanish lineage. (+info)