Study of homeosis in the flower of Philodendron (araceae): a qualitative and quantitative approach.
This study deals specifically with floral organogenesis and the development of the inflorescence of Philodendron squamiferum and P. pedatum. Pistillate flowers are initiated on the lower portion of the inflorescence and staminate flowers are initiated on the distal portion. An intermediate zone consisting of sterile male flowers and atypical bisexual flowers with fused or free carpels and staminodes is also present. This zone is located between the sterile male and female floral zones. In general, the portion of bisexual flowers facing the male zone forms staminodes, and the portion facing the female zone develops an incomplete gynoecium with few carpels. The incomplete separation of some staminodes from the gynoecial portion of the whorl shows that they belong to the same whorl as the carpels. There are two levels of aberrant floral structures in Philodendron: The first one is represented by the presence of atypical bisexual flowers, which are intermediates between typical female flowers and typical sterile male flowers. The second one is the presence of intermediate structures between typical carpels and typical staminodes on a single atypical bisexual flower. The atypical bisexual flowers of P. squamiferum and P. pedatum are believed to be a case of homeosis where carpels have been replaced by sterile stamens on the same whorl. A quantitative analysis indicates that in both species, on average, one staminode replaces one carpel. (+info)
Expression of uncoupling protein and alternative oxidase depends on lipid or carbohydrate substrates in thermogenic plants.
Thermogenesis, in which cellular respiratory activity is considerably stimulated, requires mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) in mammals and an alternative oxidase (AOX) in plants. Here, we show that the genes for both proteins are expressed in thermogenic plants, but the type correlates with the respiratory substrate. A novel gene termed PsUCPa encoding a variant of UCP was specifically expressed in thermogenic flowers of Philodendron selloum, which uses lipids as substrates. However, a gene termed DvAOX encoding for AOX protein was expressed in thermogenic flowers of Dracunculus vulgaris, which presumably uses carbohydrates as substrates. These findings suggest that cellular metabolism is a major determinant in selective expression of appropriate thermogenic genes in plants. (+info)
Quantitative developmental analysis of homeotic changes in the inflorescence of Philodendron (Araceae).