Autografting with philadelphia chromosome-negative mobilized hematopoietic progenitor cells in chronic myelogenous leukemia.
Intensive chemotherapy given in early chronic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has resulted in high numbers of circulating Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome-negative hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). We have autografted 30 consecutive patients with CML in chronic phase with HPC collected in this way to facilitate restoration of Ph-negative hematopoiesis in bone marrow after high-dose therapy. Hematopoietic recovery to greater than 0.5 x10(9)/L neutrophils and to greater than 25 x 10(9)/L platelets occurred in all patients, a median of 13 (range, 9 to 32) days and 16 (range, 6 to 106) days postautograft, respectively. Regenerating marrow cells were Ph-negative in 16 (53%) patients and greater than 66% Ph-negative in 10 (33%) patients. Twenty-eight patients are alive 6 to 76 months (median, 24 months) after autografting. Three patients have developed blast crisis from which 2 have died. Eight patients are in complete cytogenetic remission at a median of 20 (range, 6 to 44) months with a median ratio BCR-ABL/ABL of 0.002 (range, <0.001 to 0.01). Eight patients are in major cytogenetic remission at a median of 22 (range, 6 to 48) months. No patient died as a consequence of the treatment. All patients had some degree of stomatitis that was severe in 15 (50%) patients. Gastrointestinal and hepatic toxicities were observed in about one fourth of patients. Thus, autografting with Ph-negative mobilized HPC can result in prolonged restoration of Ph-negative hematopoiesis for some patients with CML; moreover, most autograft recipients report normal or near normal activity levels, suggesting that this procedure need not to be associated either with prolonged convalescence or with chronic debility. (+info)
Extremely high and specific activity of DNA enzymes in cells with a Philadelphia chromosome.
BACKGROUND: Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) results from chromosome 22 translocations (the Philadelphia chromosome) that creates BCR-ABL fusion genes, which encode two abnormal mRNAs (b3a2 and b2a2). Various attempts to design antisense oligonucleotides that specifically cleave abnormal L6 BCR-ABL fusion mRNA have not been successful. Because b2a2 mRNA cannot be effectively cleaved by hammerhead ribozymes near the BCR-ABL junction, it has proved very difficult to engineer specific cleavage of this chimeric mRNA. Nonspecific effects associated with using antisense molecules make the use of such antisense molecules questionable. RESULTS: The usefulness of DNA enzymes in specifically suppressing expression of L6 BCR-ABL mRNA in mammalian cells is demonstrated. Although the efficacy of DNA enzymes with natural linkages decreased 12 hours after transfection, partially modified DNA enzymes, with either phosphorothioate or 2'-O-methyl groups at both their 5' and 3' ends, remained active for much longer times in mammalian cells. Moreover, the DNA enzyme with only 2'-O-methyl modifications was also highly specific for abnormal mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: DNA enzymes with 2'-O-methyl modifications are potentially useful as gene-inactivating agents in the treatment of diseases such as CML. In contrast to conventional antisense DNAs, some of the DNA enzymes used in this study were highly specific and cleaved only abnormal BCR-ABL mRNA. (+info)
Selective induction of apoptosis in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia cells by an inhibitor of BCR - ABL tyrosine kinase, CGP 57148.
The BCR - ABL tyrosine kinase has been implicated as the cause of Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive leukemias. We report herein that CGP 57148, a selective inhibitor of the ABL tyrosine kinase, caused apoptosis specifically in bcr - abl-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) cells, K562 and KYO-1. Upon treatment with CGP 57148, CRKL, a specific substrate for BCR - ABL that propagates signals via phosphatidylinositol-3' kinase (PI3K), was dephosphorylated, indicating inhibition of BCR - ABL tyrosine kinase at the cellular level. Likewise, MAPK/ERK, a downstream mediator of Ras, was also dephosphorylated. Caspase activation and cleavage of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) accompanied the development of CGP 57148-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of caspase suppressed apoptosis and the cleavage of pRB, and in turn arrested cells in the G1 phase. These results indicate that CGP 57148 shows apoptogenic and anti-proliferative effects on bcr - abl-positive cells by blocking BCR - ABL-initiated signaling pathways. (+info)
Relapse in chronic myeloid leukemia after bone marrow transplantation: biomathematical modeling as a new approach to understanding pathogenesis.
A biomathematical model was developed to simulate relapse development in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) following bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The purpose of this study was to better understand the pathophysiology of the time evolution of CML relapse and to provide means whereby the outcomes of patients with CML relapse can be projected and treatment modified accordingly. The model consists of three parallel series of catenated compartments representing granulopoiesis in normal (donor) cells from the marrow, in CML cells from the marrow, and in CML cells from extramedullary sites. It was assumed that CML stem cells were resistant to feedback control and that CML-derived neutrophils, as well as normal neutrophils, exercised feedback regulation of normal stem cells. The known longer generation times for CML neutrophil precursors compared with normal neutrophil precursors were used, and it was assumed that 10(7) pluripotential stem cells were infused with BMT. The model was evaluated for its ability to simulate the reappearance of CML (Philadelphia chromosome positive) metaphases in the marrow and the recovery pattern in the blood neutrophil count in six patients who had relapsed following BMT (allogeneic in three patients, allogeneic with T-cell depletion in two patients, and syngeneic in one patient). The variables tested included the site of origin of the CML stem cells responsible for relapse (marrow alone versus marrow and extramedullary sites), the minimum number of CML stem cells responsible for relapse, and the time delay between BMT and the onset of relapse. Model profiles based on the observed values were obtained in each case. The simulations pointed to the fact that relapse began from a small number of CML cells in medullary and extramedullary sites. The time delay between BMT and the onset of relapse varied from 15 to 240 days. We suggest that this biomathematical model should be further investigated as a possible means of predicting outcome and guiding the treatment for patients with CML relapsing after BMT. (+info)
The prognostic significance of p16INK4a/p14ARF and p15INK4b deletions in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cytogenetic/molecular abnormalities significantly influence the prognosis of patients with acute leukemia. Recently, two genes, p16INK4a and p15INK4b, encoding two cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins of the INK4 family of Mr 15,000 and 16,000, respectively, have been localized to 9p21. Remarkably, the p16INK4a locus has been found to encode a second protein, p14ARF, known as p19ARF in mice, with a distinct reading frame. Like p16INK4a, p14ARF is involved in cell cycle regulation, blocking cells at the G1 restriction point through the activity of MDM-2 and p53. We studied bone marrow samples of 42 newly diagnosed and untreated patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia for the incidence of deletions of p16INK4a/p14ARF and p15INK4b using Southern blot analysis and determined the clinical outcome with regard to complete remission (CR) duration, event-free survival, and overall survival. We found deletions of p16INK4a/p14ARF in 17 of 42 patients (40%), with homozygous deletions in 11 of 42 patients (26%) and hemizygous deletions in 6 of 42 patients (14%). The gene for p15INK4b was codeleted in most, but not all, cases and was never deleted without deletion of p16INK4a/ p14ARF. No correlation was observed between molecular studies and karyotype abnormalities as determined by conventional cytogenetics. Furthermore, no difference was found in the CR rate, CR duration, event-free survival, and overall survival in patients with homozygous gene deletions compared to patients with no deletions or loss of only one allele. (+info)
BCR/ABL mRNA and the P210(BCR/ABL) protein are downmodulated by interferon-alpha in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.
The BCR/ABL hybrid gene plays a central role in the pathogenesis of the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We used a very sensitive quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to investigate the levels of hybrid BCR/ABL mRNA in bone marrow cells of 20 patients with Philadelphia positive (Ph(+)) CML treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) as a single agent. Bone marrow samples were collected at diagnosis and at hematologic remission induced by IFN-alpha, or by hydroxyurea in case of resistance to IFN-alpha. The mean levels of BCR/ABL transcripts in bone marrow mononuclear cells of patients who showed a complete hematologic response to IFN-alpha were significantly reduced with respect to those at diagnosis (48 x 10(3) v 168 x 10(3); P <.001), whereas no difference was detected between the values at diagnosis and at hematologic remission in patients resistant to IFN-alpha. In cell culture experiments, IFN-alpha priming significantly reduced the levels of BCR/ABL hybrid transcripts in a dose-dependent manner in Ph+ bone marrow precursors obtained at diagnosis from patients who subsequently responded to IFN-alpha treatment (P < .005). No downmodulation was observed in bone marrow precursors from patients who subsequently proved to be IFN-resistant. These results indicate that downmodulation of BCR/ABL gene expression could be one of the mechanisms involved in the response of CML patients to IFN-alpha treatment. (+info)
ABL1 methylation is a distinct molecular event associated with clonal evolution of chronic myeloid leukemia.
Methylation of the proximal promoter of the ABL1 oncogene is a common epigenetic alteration associated with clinical progression of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this study we queried whether both the Ph'-associated and normal ABL1 alleles undergo methylation; what may be the proportion of hematopoietic progenitors bearing methylated ABL1 promoters in chronic versus acute phase disease; whether methylation affects the promoter uniformly or in patches with discrete clinical relevance; and, finally, whether methylation of ABL1 reflects a generalized process or is gene-specific. To address these issues, we adapted the techniques of methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite-sequencing to study the regulatory regions of ABL1 and other genes with a role in DNA repair or genotoxic stress response. In cell lines established from CML blast crisis, which only carry a single ABL1 allele nested within the BCR-ABL fusion gene, ABL1 promoters were universally methylated. By contrast, in clinical samples from patients at advanced stages of disease, both methylated and unmethylated promoter alleles were detectable. To distinguish between allele-specific methylation and a mixed cell population pattern, we studied the methylation status of ABL1 in colonies derived from single hematopoietic progenitors. Our results showed that both methylated and unmethylated promoter alleles coexisted in the same colony. Furthermore, ABL1 methylation was noted in the vast majority of colonies from blast crisis, but not chronic-phase CML. Both cell lines and clinical samples from acute-phase CML showed nearly uniform hypermethylation along the promoter region. Finally, we showed that ABL1 methylation does not reflect a generalized process and may be unique among DNA repair/genotoxic stress response genes. Our data suggest that specific methylation of the Ph'-associated ABL1 allele accompanies clonal evolution in CML. (+info)
Analysis of Philadelphia chromosome-negative BCR-ABL-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia by hypermetaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization.
BACKGROUND: In 5%-10% of patients with of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) is not identified, despite the presence of the associated BCR-ABL molecular abnormality (Ph-negative, BCR-ABL-positive CML) because of sub-microscopic rearrangements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients with Ph-negative, BCR-ABL-positive CML were investigated. The Ph chromosome detection via fluorescence in situ hybridization after 24-hour mitotic arrest of bone marrow cultures resulting in several hundreds of metaphases (hypermetaphase FISH or HMF) was useful in explaining the nature of the six cases. RESULTS: Four patients had a low frequency of Ph-positive cells by HMF (5.7%, 4.8%, 3.9%, 0.2%), i.e., a typical Ph translocation. However, two cases involved a 9q34 inserted into chromosome 22q11 (74.2% and 92%), without a deletion from chromosome 22 and reciprocal translocation onto 9, i.e., not a typical Ph translocation. The pattern of UBCR gene rearrangement was characterized by the same genomic recombination of 5-BCR and c-ABL, both in the four cases of typical translocation (9;22) and in the two cases of insertion of 9q34 into chromosome 22q11. CONCLUSIONS: The HMF identified two different bases for Ph-negative, BCR-ABL-positive cells in CML-presence of low frequency of cells with typical Ph translocations or presence of cells with ABL insertions into the BCR gene on chromosome 22. (+info)