A modulatory role for clathrin light chain phosphorylation in Golgi membrane protein localization during vegetative growth and during the mating response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The role of clathrin light chain phosphorylation in regulating clathrin function has been examined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phosphorylation state of yeast clathrin light chain (Clc1p) in vivo was monitored by [32P]phosphate labeling and immunoprecipitation. Clc1p was phosphorylated in growing cells and also hyperphosphorylated upon activation of the mating response signal transduction pathway. Mating pheromone-stimulated hyperphosphorylation of Clc1p was dependent on the mating response signal transduction pathway MAP kinase Fus3p. Both basal and stimulated phosphorylation occurred exclusively on serines. Mutagenesis of Clc1p was used to map major phosphorylation sites to serines 52 and 112, but conversion of all 14 serines in Clc1p to alanines [S(all)A] was necessary to eliminate phosphorylation. Cells expressing the S(all)A mutant Clc1p displayed no defects in Clc1p binding to clathrin heavy chain, clathrin trimer stability, sorting of a soluble vacuolar protein, or receptor-mediated endocytosis of mating pheromone. However, the trans-Golgi network membrane protein Kex2p was not optimally localized in mutant cells. Furthermore, pheromone treatment exacerbated the Kex2p localization defect and caused a corresponding defect in Kex2p-mediated maturation of the alpha-factor precursor. The results reveal a novel requirement for clathrin during the mating response and suggest that phosphorylation of the light chain subunit modulates the activity of clathrin at the trans-Golgi network. (+info)
Blind smell: brain activation induced by an undetected air-borne chemical.
EEG and behavioural evidence suggests that air-borne chemicals can affect the nervous system without being consciously detected. EEG and behaviour, however, do not specify which brain structures are involved in chemical sensing that occurs below a threshold of conscious detection. Here we used functional MRI to localize brain activation induced by high and low concentrations of the air-borne compound oestra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3yl acetate. Following presentations of both concentrations, eight of eight subjects reported verbally that they could not detect any odour (P = 0.004). Forced choice detection performed during the presentations revealed above-chance detection of the high concentration, but no better than chance detection of the low concentration compound. Both concentrations induced significant brain activation, primarily in the anterior medial thalamus and inferior frontal gyrus. Activation in the inferior frontal gyrus during the high concentration condition was significantly greater in the right than in the left hemisphere (P = 0.03). A trend towards greater thalamic activation was observed for the high concentration than the low concentration compound (P = 0.08). These findings localize human brain activation that was induced by an undetectable air-borne chemical (the low concentration compound). (+info)
Central processing of pulsed pheromone signals by antennal lobe neurons in the male moth Agrotis segetum.
Male moths use female-produced pheromones as orientation cues during the mate-finding process. In addition to the needs of evaluating the quality and quantity of the pheromone signal, the male moth also needs to resolve the filamentous structure of the pheromone plume to proceed toward the releasing point successfully. To understand how a discontinuous olfactory signal is processed at the central level, we used intracellular recording methods to characterize the response patterns of antennal lobe (AL) neurons to pulsatile stimulation with the full female-produced pheromone blend and its single components in male turnip moths, Agrotis segetum. Air puffs delivered at frequencies of 1, 3, 5, 7, or 10 Hz were used to carry the stimulus. Two types of AL neurons were characterized according to their capabilities to resolve stimulus pulses. The most common type could resolve at least 1-Hz pulses, thus termed fast neurons; another type could not resolve any pulses, thus termed slow neurons. When fast neurons were excited by stimuli, they always displayed biphasic response patterns, a depolarization phase followed by a hyperpolarization phase. This pattern could be evoked by stimulation with both the single pheromone components and the blend. The pulse-resolving capability of the fast neurons correlated significantly with the size of the hyperpolarization phase. When the amplitude was higher and the fall time of the hyperpolarization faster, the neuron could follow more pulses per second. Moreover, interactions between different pheromone components eliciting different response patterns did not improve the pulse-resolving capability of fast neurons. (+info)
A Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma protein complex required for yeast orientation during mating.
Oriented cell growth requires the specification of a site for polarized growth and subsequent orientation of the cytoskeleton towards this site. During mating, haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells orient their growth in response to a pheromone gradient overriding an internal landmark for polarized growth, the bud site. This response requires Cdc24p, Far1p, and a heterotrimeric G-protein. Here we show that a two- hybrid interaction between Cdc24p and Gbeta requires Far1p but not pheromone-dependent MAP-kinase signaling, indicating Far1p has a role in regulating the association of Cdc24p and Gbeta. Binding experiments demonstrate that Cdc24p, Far1p, and Gbeta form a complex in which pairwise interactions can occur in the absence of the third protein. Cdc24p localizes to sites of polarized growth suggesting that this complex is localized. In the absence of CDC24-FAR1-mediated chemotropism, a bud site selection protein, Bud1p/Rsr1p, is essential for morphological changes in response to pheromone. These results suggest that formation of a Cdc24p-Far1p-Gbetagamma complex functions as a landmark for orientation of the cytoskeleton during growth towards an external signal. (+info)
Relative dependence of different outputs of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae pheromone response pathway on the MAP kinase Fus3p.
Fus3p and Kss1p act at the end of a conserved signaling cascade that mediates numerous cellular responses for mating. To determine the role of Fus3p in different outputs, we isolated and characterized a series of partial-function fus3 point mutants for their ability to phosphorylate a substrate (Ste7p), activate Ste12p, undergo G1 arrest, form shmoos, select partners, mate, and recover. All the mutations lie in residues that are conserved among MAP kinases and are predicted to affect either enzyme activity or binding to Ste7p or substrates. The data argue that Fus3p regulates the various outputs assayed through the phosphorylation of multiple substrates. Different levels of Fus3p function are required for individual outputs, with the most function required for shmoo formation, the terminal output. The ability of Fus3p to promote shmoo formation strongly correlates with its ability to promote G1 arrest, suggesting that the two events are coupled. Fus3p promotes recovery through a mechanism that is distinct from its ability to promote G1 arrest and may involve a mechanism that does not require kinase activity. Moreover, catalytically inactive Fus3p inhibits the ability of active Fus3p to activate Ste12p and hastens recovery without blocking G1 arrest or shmoo formation. These results raise the possibility that in the absence of sustained activation of Fus3p, catalytically inactive Fus3p blocks further differentiation by restoring mitotic growth. Finally, suppression analysis argues that Kss1p contributes to the overall pheromone response in a wild-type strain, but that Fus3p is the critical kinase for all of the outputs tested. (+info)
Autoinducer binding by the quorum-sensing regulator TraR increases affinity for target promoters in vitro and decreases TraR turnover rates in whole cells.
TraR is an Agrobacterium transcriptional regulator whose activity requires the pheromone N-3-oxooctanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. TraR was purified as a complex with the pheromone and contained one pheromone molecule per protein monomer. TraR-pheromone complexes bound to a single DNA site and activated two promoters that flank this site. Promoter expression was elevated 30-fold by using a supercoiled template. Pheromone binding increased the affinity of TraR for this binding site. Pheromone also increased TraR abundance in vivo by causing a 20-fold decrease in TraR turnover rates. (+info)
Comprehensive evaluation of isoprenoid biosynthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing the Genome Reporter Matrix.
Gene expression profiling is rapidly becoming a mainstay of functional genomic studies. However, there have been relatively few studies of how the data from expression profiles integrate with more classic approaches to examine gene expression. This study used gene expression profiling of a portion of the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to explore the impact of blocks in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway on the expression of genes and the regulation of this pathway. Approximately 50% of the genes whose expression was altered by blocks in isoprenoid biosynthesis were genes previously known to participate in the pathway. In contrast to this simple correspondence, the regulatory patterns revealed by different blocks, and in particular by antifungal azoles, was complex in a manner not anticipated by earlier studies. (+info)
The spawning pheromone cysteine-glutathione disulfide ('nereithione') arouses a multicomponent nuptial behavior and electrophysiological activity in Nereis succinea males.
The pheromone nereithione (cysteine-glutathione disulfide), which is released by swimming females of the polychaete Nereis succinea to activate spawning behavior of N. succinea males, has recently been identified and synthesized. Nereithione activates sperm release at less than 10(-6) M, one to two orders of magnitude less than oxidized glutathione or any other glutathione derivative tested. The glutathione fragment gamma-glu-cys inhibited sperm release. Nereithione aroused three components of the male nuptial behavior: circling, sperm release, and accelerated swimming. Electrophysiological activity elicited by nereithione near the sperm release site consisted of initial large spikes, cyclic bursting activity, and small spikes lasting up to a minute and was dose dependent, rapid, reversible, and repeatable. This preparation is an excellent model system for characterizing the receptors and functions of a marine pheromone. (+info)